Shia praying in the mosques of the Muslims: A sign of hope or hopelessness !?



In the name of God the merciful and gracious,

The researchers of Islamic sects in our days and those interested in researching the Shia sects in specific will observe the positive image some of these sects try to paint for themselves, the Twelver Shia sect  is no different and the image they try to sell in the west is that of a truthful loving sect that works hard towards Islamic unity. When we take a closer look at the position of the Shia concerning the congregational prayer alongside the rest of the Muslims, we find that the early and late Shia scholars present some pretty descent material, discussing the brotherhood between Muslims and bridging the gaps and uniting the nation, they say that their Imams ordered them to pray together in congregation with the rest of the Muslims in the “Sunni” mosques, they will say that the Shia who prays next to the Sunni in a Sunni mosque will be rewarded.

The Shia scholars have adopted this attitude  and they openly declare it permissible for their followers to pray in congregation with the Muslims and this is indeed a positive step that they think will lessen or reduce the amount of attacks and accusations they usually receive such as them being labeled Takfeeris that make Takfeer on all non-Twelvers, or the accusation of them being hypocrites who only display a peaceful image on the outside but on the inside they hide ill-will and hatred towards all those who differ with them.

In order to know the truth of the matter I have resolved to conduct this study, based on what the Shia scholars say in their books and on the narrations they transmitted from their Imams. The result of this study will show whether this beautiful image the Shia displayed to the rest of the Muslims is true and they should be praised for it, or a fake negative image they use only to hide their hatred for the Muslims.


Before we begin to uncover the truth of their call we need to clarify certain terms often used by Shia scholars.

The first term: “al-Mukhalif” or “المخالف”which I translated to: “The one who opposes”.

The meaning of the word “Mukhalif” or in plural “Mukhalifeen” is basically all those Muslims who oppose or differ with the Twelver Shia, this terms is used by the Shia scholars to refer to Ahlul-Sunnah in all their schools and Madhabs, and then to other Shia such as the Zaidis.

Grand Ayatullah Muhammad Sa’eed al-Hakeem who currently resides in Najaf said in “Usool al-Fiqh” 6/194, while explaining the terms “Moukhalifeen” and “‘Amah” (العامة):

[It is apparent that what is meant by al-‘Amah are the Mokhalifoun in all their different teams who are loyal to the two sheikhs(Abu Bakr and ‘Umar) and see their Caliphate as legitimate; because this is the meaning designated by these terms in the texts]

As you can see above, the Shia scholar explained two terms often used by the Shia to refer to Sunnies, the first one is al-‘Amah or in other words the mainstream Muslims, he said they are the same as the Mukhalifeen who are defined as all Muslims who are loyal to Abu Bakr (ra) and ‘Umar (ra) and see their caliphate as legitimate.

Grand Ayatullah Muhammad Reda al-Kalbaykani answered a questioner who asked about the definition of “al-Mukhalif” in his book “Irshad al-Sael” pg.199, Question #742:

[Who is al-Mukhalif? is he the one who opposes with the Shia in their belief in Imamah? or the one who differed with some of the Imams or rejected some such as the Zaidis and others? is the ruling of the Moukhalif the same as the ruling of the Nasibi or Khariji or the Ghulat?

Answer: Bismillah,
al-Moukhalif in our tongue is directed towards those who deny the Caliphate of Ameer al-Mumineen (as), as for the one who denies one of the Imams, although he is considered a Shia yet he is not treated according to the laws of the Twelver Shia.]

‘Allamah Zain al-Deen al-‘Amili whom they call al-Shaheed al-Thani says in “al-Rawdah al-Bahiyah fi Sharh al-Lama’ah a-Dimashqiyah” 1/428:

[al-Moukhalif is any Muslim who is not a Twelver.]

The second term: “al-Mumin” or “المؤمن” which means “The believer”.

The Shia scholars use the term “Believer” to refer to the Twelver Shia exclusively.

Shia scholar al-Khawansari says in “Jami’i al-Madarik” 6/4:

[From the conditions of Iman(being a believer) is that he is a Twelver.]

Grand Ayatullah abu al-Qassim al-Khoei says in “Misbah al-Fuqaha” 1/503-504:

[I say: What is meant by the believer is the one who believes in Allah and his Prophet and the Day of Judgment and the Twelve Imams (as), starting with ‘Ali (as) and ending with al-Qaem al-Hujjah al-Muntazar(Mahdi).]

Grand Ayatullah and creator of the republic of Iran, Imam al-Khomeini says in “al-Makasib al-Muharramah” 1/250:

[What is meant by believer: The Imami Twelver Shia.]

Grand Ayatullah ‘Ali al-Sistani says in “al-Masael al-Muntakhabah” pg.13:

[Fourthly: al-Iman(The belief) – meaning he has to be a Twelver]

And finally, sheikh Muhammad Jawa Mughniyah explains in “al-Shia fil-Meezan” pg.118:

[And in this occasion we point that when the Imamis(Shia) say in their books of Fiqh: “Zakat is given to the Mumin(Believer)” or “You must pray behind the Mumin(Believer)” what is meant is the Twelver Imami exclusively.]

To sum it up:

– al-Mukhalifoun = those who oppose or differ with the Twelver Shia = mainly Ahlul-Sunnah and some non-Twelver Shia sects.

– al-‘Amah = the mainstream Muslims = Ahlul-Sunnah.

– al-Muminoun = the believers = Twelver Imami Shia.

Now that we have explained what the Shia scholars mean by “Those who oppose us” and “mainstream Muslims” and by “The believers”, we can start presenting what is apparent and what is hidden from their call to congregational prayer or Jama’ah prayer with Ahlul-Sunnah.

The beautiful face of their call

We start with some of their narrations that encourage the Shia to pray in Sunni mosques:

1- Thiqatul-Islam al-Kulayni narrate in “al-Kafi” 3/380, from al-Halabi, from abu ‘Abdullah (as): “He who prays with them(Sunnies) in the first row is like he who prays behind Rassul-Allah (SAWS).”

2- Sheikh al-Taefa Muhammad bin al-Hassan al-Tusi narrates in “Tahtheeb al-Ahkam” 3/277, from Ishaq bin ‘Ammar: abu ‘Abdullah (as) told me: “O Ishaq, do you pray with them(Sunnies) in the Masjid?”

I said: “Yes”

He said: “Pray with them, the one who prays with them in the first row is like the one who unsheathed his sword in the cause of Allah.”

3- Ibn Babaweih al-Qummi whom they call al-Saduq reports in “al-Hidayah” pg.53:

“And he (as) said: Visit their sick, go to their funerals and pray in their mosques.”

As for the statements of their scholars in this matter, they are many and I quote some as examples:

al-Shaheed al-Awwal Muhammad Makki al-‘Amili says in “al-Bayan” pg.142:

[It is definitely recommended(Mustahabb) to attend the congregational prayers of Ahlul-Khilaf(Sunnies), al-Sadiq (as) said: “He who pays with them in the first row” and from him (as): “It is accounted for those that don’t follow (Sunni prayer) to a similar extent as those that do, and the same applies to who prays the obligatory prayer (with them) and those that don’t.”]

Grand Ayatullah Muhammad Ishaq Fayyad said in “Ta’aleeq Mabsoutah” 10/448:

[In a group of accepted narrations, being present in their(Sunni) mosques and attending their Jama’ah(Congregational) prayers and funerals was encouraged, and in some(Narrations) that the prayer behind them is like the prayer behind the Prophet (SAWS).]

Their scholar ‘Ali al-Shahrastani says in “Kitab Wudhu al-Nabi” 1/334:

[Many narrations have been reported by al-Sadiq regarding the congregational prayer with al-‘Amah(Sunnies) in order to protect Islamic unity, he said: “He who prays with them in the first row is like he who prays behind the Prophet (SAWS).”

and his saying: “O Ishaq, do you pray with them(Sunnies) in the Masjid?”

I said: “Yes”

He said: “Pray with them, the one who prays with them in the first row is like the one who unsheathed his sword in the cause of Allah.”]

Finally, Grand Ayatullah Nasir Makarim al-Shirazi says in “al-Qawa’ed al-Fiqhiya” 1/451:

[As for the matter of: Is it permissible to pray behind them(Sunnies) when there is no fear but rather from a perspective of good relations and to be liked by them, as is the situation in our times usually, especially in the season of Hajj, the failure to attend  their Jama’ah(congregational prayers) does not create anything to be fearful from when it comes to the self and the wealth and family, but entering in their congregational prayers is better for Islamic-brotherhood and good relations. This is based on a group of narrations that affirm this and maybe they are Mutawatir in this sense.]

The ugly hidden face of their call

I have no doubt that what I am about to uncover here will remove the smile from the faces of many Muslims who may have found some hope of unity in the narrations and declarations above. Here we shall briefly expose the other face of this “call of love and unity” so that its true image can be visible to all Muslims, this is the face the Shia try their hardest to hide from the nation.

The First Issue: Their consensus on the impermissibility of praying behind any Muslim who is not a Twelver Imami Shia.

He who follows the statements of the Shia scholars in their books of Fiqh will find that they agree that the condition of Imamah in Salat(prayer) is reserved only for the ones whom they accept as “believers”, this means by default that the prayer behind any non-Imami Twelver is obsolete.

al-Muhaqqiq Yusuf al-Bahrani quotes some of these narrations in “al-Hadaeq al-Nadirah” 10/4-6:

[Thirdly – al-Iman, and it is to confirm the five Usool including the Imamah of the twelve Imams (as) and there is no difference among our companions that this is a condition. This is proven by plenty of narrations.

From them, what is narrated in al-Kafi from Zurarah with two chains one of them being Sahih or Hasan, from Ibrahim bin Hashim al-Qummi:

I was sitting with abu Ja’afar (as) when a man(Shia) entered on him and said: “May I be a sacrifice for you, I live next door to a Masjid and if I don’t pray with them they start saying bad things about me?”

He replied: Now that you’ve mentioned this, Ameer al-Mumineen(‘Ali) said: “He who hears the call(to prayer) and does not attend it without having an excuse (That prevents him from attending), then there is no prayer for him.”

So the man left and he told him: “Do not leave any prayer with them and behind every Imam.”

So when he finally left, I told the Imam: “May I be a sacrifice for you, this saying of yours troubled me greatly, when the man asked for your Fatwa, what if his folks weren’t believers(Shia)?”

He (as) laughed and replied to me: “I will not see you anywhere after this but here O Zurarah, for what more of a reason (to be used as an excuse) do you need that is greater than the fact that – he (the Sunni) is not to be followed in prayer?”

Then he said: “O Zurarah, did you not see that I said: pray in your mosques and behind your Imams?”

And what is narrated by the Sheikh in the Sahih from abu Abdullah al-Barqi: I wrote to abu Ja’afar (as): “May I be a sacrifice for you, is it permissible to pray behind those who did not accept the Imamah of your father and grandfather (as)?”

He replied: “Do not pray behind him.”

Also what is narrated in al-Faqih and al-Tahtheeb from the Sahih of Isma’eel al-Ju’ufi: I said to abu Ja’afar (as): “A man loves Ameer al-Mumineen (as) but does not disown his enemies, but says: He is more beloved to me than those who opposed him?”

He (as) replied: “He is confused and he is an enemy, so do not pray behind him, not at all, unless as Taqqiyah.”

What is narrated in al-Tahtheeb from Ibrahim ibn Shaybah: “I wrote to abu Ja’afar (as) asking him about the prayer behind the one who loves Ameer al-Mumineen (as) but at the same time wipes on his Khuffayn(socks), or behind the one who forbids the wiping but he wipes?”

He wrote to me: “If you are stuck with them in a situation and you see no way out of this except praying, make your own call to prayer and then make Iqamah, if he beats you to the recitation then make Tasbeeh.”

What was narrated in the Sahih by al-Kulayni from Zurarah regarding al-Hassan: “I asked abu Ja’afar (as) about praying behind those who differ with us?”

He said: “To me, they are of the same status as the walls.”

From abu ‘Ali bin Rashid: I said to abu Ja’afar (as): ” Verily your supporters (muwalika) have disagreed, so do I pray behind all of them?”

So he (as) said: “Do not pray except behind someone whose religion you trust.”

What al-Kashshi narrated in Kitab al-Rijal from Yazid bin Hamad from abu al-Hassan (as): I said to him: “Do I pray behind someone I don’t know?”

He replied: “Do not pray except behind someone whose religion you trust.”

And many other such narrations that show that the acts of worship of those who oppose us are not accepted and praying behind them is unacceptable.]

Grand Ayatullah abu al-Qassim al-Khoei in “Kitab al-Salat” 5/2/394-395, talks about the condition of Iman(Belief) when leading the prayer or being the Imam of the prayer:

[Meaning the belief in the twelve Imams (as) without any problems or doubts, and a group of narrations have pointed to this such as the Sahih of Zurarah about praying behind the Moukhalifeen(Sunnies), he (as) said: “To me, they are of the same status as walls.”

And the Sahih of al-Barqi: I wrote to abu Ja’afar (as): “May I be a sacrifice for you, is it permissible to pray behind those who did not accept the Imamah of your father and grandfather (as)?”

He replied: “Do not pray behind him.”

And the Sahih of Isma’eel al-Ju’ufi: “A man loves Ameer al-Mumineen (as) but does not disown his enemies, but says: He is more beloved to me than those who opposed him?”

He (as) replied: “He is a confused person and he is an enemy, so do not pray behind him, not at all, unless as Taqqiyah.”

And the Sahih of ibn Mahzayar: I wrote to Muhammad bin ‘Ali al-Reda (as): “Do I pray behind someone who professes the Jism (attributes Jism to Allah), and someone who professes the doctrine of Yunus?”

So he (as) wrote: “Do not pray behind them and do not give them anything of zakat.  And disown them, Allah has disowned them.”]

al-Khoei also said in “Kitab al-Ijtihad wal-Taqleed” pg.287:

[What is meant by trusting someone’s religion is that the Imam(Leader of prayer) must be a Twelver Imami, this is because of the narrations that prohibit praying behind the Mukhalifeen(Sunnies), and in some he (as) considers them like the walls.]

Grand Ayatullah Muhammad Sadiq al-Roohani says in “Fiqh al-Sadiq” 6/266:

[The second: al-Iman(The belief), meaning he has to recognize the Imamah of the twelve Imams (as) and that it is something which should not be doubted, the consensus regarding this was reported to us through a group. What supports it: many texts such as the Sahih of Zurarah from abu Ja’afar (as) about praying behind the Mukhalifeen, he (as) said: “To me, they are of the same status as walls.”

And Sahih al-Barqi: He wrote to abu Ja’afar (as):” is it permissible to pray behind those who did not accept the Imamah of your father and grandfather (as)?”

He replied: “Do not pray behind him.”]

We conclude from the above, based on the declaration of their top scholars backed by the consensus of the Shia and their authentic narrations, that the prayer of the Shia behind a Sunni is invalid. Before we move on to the second issue, we need to state two seriously dangerous Shia beliefs and I apologize to the Muslims from what they are about to read.

The first belief: That the Muslims who does not believe in Imamah is a Fasiq and praying behind him is impermissible.

Their Muhaqqiq al-Ardabilee says in “Majma’a al-Faidah wal-Burhan” 3/246:

[As for placing the Iman as a condition: The proof for it was previously stated and it is the consensus, according to what is in al-Muntaha, and the narrations in the research of al-Jumu’ah, and he used as proofs: That the non-believer is an oppressor and a Fasiq, and emulating or imitating him (in prayer) would be considered like leaning towards him, this is forbidden by the saying of Allah: {And incline not towards those} (11:113)]

al-Muhaqqiq Ahmad bin Muhammad Mahdi al-Naraqi says in “Mustanad al-Shia” 8/26:

[The second: al-Iman in the special intended meaning, according to the current consensus and that which has been reported to us, and the countless narrations, and in the narration of Zurarah: about praying behind the Moukhalifeen, so he said: “To me they are of the status of walls.” adding this to the general narrations that show the invalidity of the acts of worship of the one who opposes us, and that the prayer behind him is not valid and that it is forbidden, and the orders given to those who stand behind their Imams in prayer to recite for themselves, and their content which shows that the condition of the religion of the Imam must be taken into consideration, they are also explicit in declaring that the one who opposes us is a Fasiq.]

‘Allamah Muhammad Hassan al-Najafi says in “Jawahir al-Kalam” 13/273:

[What to take into consideration concerning the Imam (of prayer) is his Iman in the special sense which would make him an Imami Shia, and it(prayer) is not valid behind the one who opposes us, there is agreement on this, there is even a consensus on this matter reported through many ways and it is Mutawatir like the texts that order the Imami(who prays behind the Sunni) to recite (his own recitation) behind (the Imam) of the Mukhalifeen, and that they are of the status of walls. As well as all the specific narrations concerning this matter about the condition of the religion (of the Imam), as there is no Fisq greater than that.]

Grand Ayatullah Kathim al-Haeri says in “al-Qadaa fil-Fiqh al-Islami” pg.323:

[Yes if we say: That the invalidity of the testimony of the Sunni is due to Fisq (…) Because the Jew is also a Fasiq in the same sense that the Sunni is a Fasiq, meaning they are Fasiqeen when it comes to ‘Aqaed(beliefs)]

In al-Kafi under the chapter ” Chapter on the prayer behind one whom you do not follow (trust his faith)”:

[‘Ali bin Ibrahim from his father (Ibrahim bin Hashim) from Hammad (bin ‘Isa) from Hariz (bin Abdillah) from Zurarah (bin A’yan) who said : I said to Abi Ja’afar (as) : the people narrate about the commander of the faithful – Ali (a.s) – that he prayed four Raka’at (units) of prayer after Friday congregational prayer without partitioning between them with the Taslim (as one does in between two different – two Raka’at Mustahhab/recommended prayers), so He (as) said : O Zurarah, indeed the commander of the faithful (‘Ali) had prayed (the Friday congregational prayers) behind a Fasiq (Meaning the Caliphs Abu Bakr and ‘Umar and ‘Uthman), so when he (the Sunni Caliph) completed that (leading the prayer) and left, the commander of the faithful (as) stood up and prayed four Raka’at of prayers without partitioning between them with the Taslim (i.e He (as) prayed a complete Dhuhr), so a man who was by his side (in the row) asked him : O Abal Hassan! you have prayed four Raka’at of prayer without partitioning between them? so He (as) said : They are four ambiguous Raka’at (calling into doubt the Sunni Imam’s nature) and remained silent; so (Abu Ja’afar (as) says) : I swear by Allah (swt), he the man (who had asked the question) did not understand what was said to him (by ‘Ali (as)).]

I ask the reader, have you seen more evil and more hatred in any religion or sect that equals that of the Twelver Shia? It surpasses all expectations when their contemporary grand Ayatullah al-Haeri likens the Muslims to Jews.

Truly this saying of Allah fits these Shia scholars perfectly:

{Hatred has already shown itself of their mouths, and what their breasts conceal is yet greater.} [3:118]

This shows that their call to unity is laughable and that it is nothing more than Taqqiyah and Mudarat to trick the Muslims.

The second belief: The prayer of the Muslim who does not believe in Imamah and all his other acts of worship are nullified.

al-Shaheed al-Thani al-‘Allamah Zain al-Deen al-‘Amili says in “Rawd al-Jinan” pg.356-357:

[Know that this ruling does not prove the correctness of the act of worship of the Moukhalif(Sunni), but what is correct is that it is corrupt even if it has gathered all the necessary conditions except Iman, and Iman is a condition of the validity of the prayer (…) When the Mukhalif dies is his condition , he will be punished because of it like the Kafir (…) although there are plenty of narrations proving the invalidity of all acts of worship of the one who does not believe in Wilayah(Imamah), from them is what al-Saduq narrated with his Isnad to ‘Ali bin al-Hussein: “If a man was given the entire age of Nuh with his people, a thousand years minus fifty, and he fasts the days and prays the nights between al-Rukn and al-Maqam, then he met Allah without believing in our Wilayah, all of it will not benefit him.”]

al-Muhaqqiq al-Subzawari in “Thakheerat al-Mi’ad” 1/2/302:

[What proves it is what generally proves the invalidity of the worship of the Mukhalif and the narrations stating that the prayer behind the Mukalifeen is not accepted and the forbiddance of praying behind them.]

al-Faqih al-Muhaqqiq al-Mirza abu al-Qassim al-Qummi says in “Ghanaem al-Ayyam”2/31:

[As for al-Iman, what is meant from it is that he must be a Twelver, for the reasons we mentioned, and for the specific narrations that prove the invalidity of the acts of worship of the one who opposes us, and that imitating the Waqifiyah(Shia sect) is forbidden.]

Grand Ayatullah abu al-Qassim al-Khoei says in “Kitab al-Sawm” 2/328:

[And we said that there are many narrations stating that the correctness of the acts of worship is tied to (the belief in) al-Wilayah(Imamah), the one who is not a Muwali(Follower) of the twelve Imams (as) all his deeds are like a mirage, they are non-existent]

Dear reader, look at this horrible image they painted for us, of a Man who believe in Allah and his angels and books and prophets and the final day, he does his best every day, treating people with kindness and calling the Kouffar to Islam, a man who fasts as often as he can to please Allah, a man who prays during the long nights until his feet get swollen from standing, and on the day of judgment, all his good deeds and acts of worship are annulled, simply because he isn’t a Twelver Shia.

May Allah punish these Shia scholars for their evil beliefs, they place the pious Muslims and the Kuffar and Mushrikeen in the same category, they have accused all the Muslims in the lands and throughout all the ages of being heretics, and then with all audacity they claim to be the ones calling to Islamic unity.

The Second Issue: That their prayer behind us is not real, it is only an apparent image.

To sum up the above, the Shia scholars have consensus that the one to lead the prayer must be a Twelver Shia, that praying behind a Sunni is impermissible because we are considered like “Walls” and we are Fasiqeen and our acts of worship are invalid by default.

Now we need to know what is the meaning of that prayer which they allowed at the beginning of this study, the prayer which they claimed creates unity and brotherhood between Muslims. It turns out that prayer was not real, it is a fake outer image.

al-‘Allamah ‘Ali al-TabaTabae says in “Riyad al-Masael” 4/357:

[Based on the fact that imitating(emulating) the Mukhalif (in prayer) is not a real imitation but a partial or semi-imitation.]

Sheikh Murtada al-Ansari says in “Kitab al-Salat” 2/471:

[Issue: Reciting (One’s own recitation) behind the un-acceptable Imam(Sunni) is obligatory, as imitating them is nothing more than an apparent image.]

‘Allamah Muhammad Baqir al-Majlisi says in “Bihar al-Anwar” 85/45:

[Clarification: “Behind the Imam” means the evil Imams which were present in both their times (as), they used to pray behind them as Taqqiyah, and they did not make the Niyyah(Intention) of imitating them, they used to recite for themselves and perform their own prayers.]

Here I feel the need to clarify something for the readers myself, what is meant by all the above, is that when the Shia prays behind the Sunni, he isn’t actually imitating or following the Sunni Imam, he deceives the Imam by making him think that he is praying behind him in congregation. However, in reality that prayer is nothing more than an image, an act of theatre, as the Shia is actually performing his own prayer and is reciting his own recitation independently.

‘Allamah Muhammad Saleh al-Mazandarani says in “Sharh Usool al-Kafi” 12/151:

[“And attend the congregational prayers with your folks in their mosques” means with them in the apparent image of congregation, even if one knows that he is actually praying alone as some of the narrations stated.]

al-Faqih al-Muhaqqiq Aqa Reda al-Hamdani says in “Misbah al-Faqih” 2/2/645:

[What is apparent is that he does not mean the true imitation of the Imam (of prayer) as that requires him to have the necessary conditions of being an Imam, but it is only a convenient image for that specific time as a Taqqiyah, so the one who prays behind them is as if he is praying on his own.]

Grand Ayatullah al-‘Allamah Muhammad Hussein al-Isfahani says in “Kitab Salat al-Jama’ah” pg.216:

[And what confronts them are clearer narrations proving that it is the image of a prayer just as it is an image of a congregational prayer.]

Sheikh Muhammad Hassan al-Qadiri says in “al-Bahth fi Risalat al-‘Asharah” pg.192-193:

[And the narration proves to us that what is required is only to participate with them in the image of an act of worship not in its reality]

Grand Ayatullah abu al-Qassem al-Khoei says in “Kitab al-Tahara” 4/313-314:

[What we need to point to in this topic, is that praying behind them is not like praying behind the just Imam, but in actuality based on the narrations it is an image of a prayer, al-‘Amah(Sunnies) think it is a prayer and that they are being followed as Imams. From this we see why the narrations only speak about praying with them but not actually following or imitating them, so he(Shia) enters to pray with them, he makes his own Adhan(Call to prayer) and his own Iqamah, and he recites for himself in a way that no one could hear his voice.]

Grand Ayatullah Muhammad Sadiq al-Roohani says in “Fiqh al-Sadiq” 6/323:

[Then what is meant by this phrase is that praying with them is Taqqiyah, as it draws the benefits of the two acts, meaning the act of the second prayer even if it is only an image, It is better than the first one which is real because of the great benefits it creates]

O Muslims do not rejoice with that payer, it is not real as you have been fooled to believe, it is only a fake image performed to trick and deceive the Muslims.

The Third Issue: They show that they are following along but that is just to trick the Muslims.

I present the words of some of the Shia scholars who openly declared this calamity.

al-Shaheed al-Awwal al-‘Allamah Muhammad bin Makki al-‘Amili said in “Thikra al-Shia bi Ahkam al-Shari’ah” 4/469-470:

[The eighth: There is a dispensation(Rukhsa) that when one is compelled to pray behind the Mukhalif, he can make it look like he is following along apparently but he does not make the real prostration(Sujoud) this has been narrated by ‘Ubeid bin Zurarah from abu ‘Abdullah (as), when he said: “As for me, I pray with them and show them that I am making Sujoud, but in reality I am not making Sujoud.”]

Grand Ayatullah Muhammad Hassan al-Bajnourdi in “al-Qawa’ed al-Fiqhiya” 4/73:

[Yes, it is correct to say that if he(Shia) was able to conform in the obligatory (prayers) during his work through trickery, and to give them(Sunnies) the illusion that he is doing as they are doing – and if he didn’t do what they did it wouldn’t be neglecting Taqiyyah – and it isn’t necessary for him to do so (out of fear of) immediate harm or after a duration of time, neither upon him, or others from his group, (either way) it is obligatory.]

al-‘Allamah Ja’afar Kashif al-Ghataa in “Kashf al-Ghataa” 1/265:

[And one needs to have the intention(Niyyah) of praying separately with them, and to show outwardly that he has participated in their congregational prayer, then he should recite what he can from Adhkaar and other things in a low voice while he is following their Imams, and it would be better if he were to pray the prescribed payer before he attends the congregational prayer with them]

Muhammad Hassan al-Qadiri says in “al-Bahth fi Risalat al-‘Ashara” pg.193:

[What we conclude from all of this: What we draw from the narrations is that it is required to enter their mosques and enter into their prayers, to show them that one is following them]

Muhammad Baqir al-Behbudi says in the margin #1 of the book “Bihar al-Anwar” 79/336:

[The way to view these narrations is that they (the Imams) have allowed their Shia to pray in their houses, and perform both obligatory and optional prayers consecutively, (in an attempt) to dissociate (their actions) from the imitation of the leaders of the opposing sects.]

The Fourth issue: That this prayer is considered unacceptable by many of their scholars.

Grand Ayatullah Nasir Makarim al-Shirazi in “al-Qawa’ed al-Fiqhiya” 1/455-457:

[We find in more than one narration in chapter (6) from the chapters of “al-Jama’ah” that this prayer is not counted, but he(Shia) has to pray the (true) prescribed prayer before it or after it, while the prayer with them(Sunnies) would be desired or obligatory Taqqiyah only to seem likable to them or out of fear]

Ayatullah Muhammad Ishaq Fayyad says in “al-Mabahith al-Usooliyah” 3/409:

[So what we can use as reference is the third group (of narrations) that is not opposed (by other narrations), these (narrations) say that it is permissible to imitate them with the condition of reciting for yourself on your own, and yes there are general benefits from joining them in Salat(prayer) and imitating their Imam such as showing unity between the Muslims and preserving the interests of the (shia) sect, but it doesn’t validate his prayer unless he makes his own recitation]

As for the Hadith in “al-Kafi” 3/373, in which the Shia Imam supposedly says that the non-Twelver Muslim who leads the prayer is like a wall, some of their biggest scholars have commented on this narration, I list some examples:

Sheikh Murtada al-Ansari said in “Kitab al-Salat” 1/309:

[Then this also supports (the view) that the Mukhalif Imam(Sunni) who stands in front (of the Shia), is of the rank of a wall, meaning his presence is like his absence it doesn’t affect anything.]

Muhammad Baqir al-Majlisi said in “Miraat al-‘Uqool” 15/256:

[Meaning their (Sunnie’s) prayer and recitation are not relied upon and there is no harm in being near them, and it is possible that the meaning is to forbid us from imitating them (in prayer).]

The Muhaqqiq of al-Kafi, ‘Ali Akbar Ghafari commented on this narration by saying:

[Meaning their prayer and recitation are not relied upon.]

Also in the authentic narration from al-Kafi under the chapter “on the man who prays alone and then repeats it in Jama’ah or leads a people in prayer having prayed (alone) before”:

[Muhammad bin Yahya from Ahmad bin Muhammad from ‘Uthman bin ‘Isa from Sam’ah (bin Mihran) who said : I asked Him (as) about a man who was praying (an obligatory prayer – alone), so (while he was doing that) an imam emerges (wishing to lead a congregational prayer for it), and he (the man) has (already) prayed a single Raka’at (from his individual prayer), so He (as) said : if it is a just imam (who emerges), then he should pray the other Raka’at (to make it two) and (complete this prayer) and make it a Nafila, and then enter with the imam in his (the imam’s) prayer (making it a new beginning). And if it is not a just imam (who emerges), then he should continue with his own prayer (that he had started and was in), and pray the other Raka’at (of his individual prayer – while making it look as though he has started afresh, behind or) with the imam, and he should sit in it for the duration in which he can say : ‘There is no god but Allah, and Muhammad is his messenger’ (as his Tashahud – after this imam’s first Raka’at and what is his own second), then complete his own prayer behind the imam as best as he can (since he will finish before the imam), for Taqiyyah is wide (all-encompassing), and there is not a thing (done) in Taqiyyah but its performer is rewarded for it, if Allah wills.]

So this prayer is close to being a series of imaginary moves to give the illusion of congregational prayer, but according to their scholars this fake act does not fulfill the task of the prescribed prayer so the Shia needs to pray on his own, make his own call to prayer, make his own Iqamah, recite his own verses while he moves in a way that gives the illusion of following along behind the Sunni Imam.

The Fifth issue: That they may curse the Muslim who leads them in prayer.

In their Sahih from Muhammad ibn Ya’aqoub al-Kulayni in “al-Kafi” 3/380:

[A large number of my teachers from Ahmad bin Muhammad from Husayn bin Said from Ya’aqoub bin Yaqteen who said : I said to Abu al-Hassan (as): May I be ransomed for you, the time for (the prayer of) Dhuhr arrives, so we do not have the opportunity to pray it in its earliest time (due to their presence), until they (the Sunnies) begin praying it, so we join them for it, and pray with them, then they stand and depart, so we stand and pray the ‘Asr making it look as though we are praying of the Nafila (after Dhuhr), then they come for the ‘Asr and proceed for it, so we pray (again) behind them (is this right?), so He (as) said : “Pray with them, may Allah not grant them peace.”]

al-Muhaqqiq al-Ardabilee says while commenting in “Majma’a al-Faidah wal-Burhan” 3/289:

[And what is in the Sahih of ‘Ali bin Yaqteen, “they proceed for it” meaning the ‘Asr prayer, so do we pray with them? So he (as) said: “Pray with them may Allah not bless them” And this is explicit when it comes to the second but it was apparently accompanied by Taqqiyah, and in this (narration) is the proof for (the permissibility of) cursing them (Sunnies).]

Dear reader do you see the great tragedy that lies behind that “Innocent call”? Is this brotherhood and unity? to pray behind them “May Allah not bless them”!? Will the Shia not miss any chance to curse and insult and slander and make Takfeer and Tafseeq on those who differ with them? They couldn’t even wait until after the prayer is finished.

The Sixth issue: The Shia takes the reward of the Muslims praying around him and leaves them his sins.

From the worst signs of hatred and enmity is what can been seen in the following Shia beliefs:

Thiqatul-Islam Muhammad bin Ya’aqoub al-Kulayni narrated in “al-Kafi” 3/380-381:

[From al-Hussein bin ‘Abdullah al-Arjani, from abu ‘Abdullah (as): “He who prays (the prescribed prayer) at home, then went to one of their (Sunni) mosques to pray with them, he shall leave with their rewards.”]

Sheikh al-Taefa al-Tusi narrates in “Tahtheeb al-Ahkam” 3/273:

[From ibn Saleh from abu al-Hassan al-Awwal (as): I said to him: “The man from among us(Shia) prays his prayer at home with his door closed, then he leaves to pray with his neighbors(Sunnies), will his prayer at home alone be counted as a congregational prayer?”

He (as) then said: “He who prays at home, Allah will give him double the reward of the congregational prayer, for him it will be fifty levels, as for the one who prays with his neighbors(Sunnies) Allah will write for him the reward of the one who prays behind Rassul-Allah (SAWS), he will leave for them(Sunnies) his sins and shall take their rewards.]

Shia scholar Muhammad Saleh al-Mazandarani says in “Sharh Usool al-Kafi” 12/151:

[“And attend with your people(Sunnies) their prayers in their mosques” means with them in the apparent image of a congregational prayer, even if you are in actuality praying alone as the narrations stated, with the benefit that you actually leave with the rewards of their prayer.]

al-‘Allamah Ja’afar Kashif al-Ghataa says in “Kashf al-Ghataa” 1/265:

[But leading them(Sunnies) and praying with them(Sunnies) has great virtue and reward, it was narrated that the one praying behind them in the first row is like the one who prays behind the Prophet (SAWS) in the first row, and it was narrated that Allah will forgive the sins of the one praying with them based on the number of Mukhalifeen(Sunnies), and it was narrated that the one who prays with them gets the same reward as if he prayed behind a just (Shia) Imam, and it was narrated that the one who attends their prayer is like the one who unsheathed his sword in the cause of Allah, and that the Prophet (SAWS) gave them (in marriage) some of his daughters, and that ‘Ali prayed behind them, and that al-Hassan and al-Hussein both prayed behind Marwan, and that the one who prays with them shall leave with their rewards and shall leave them his sins (…) And that the Imami (Shia) have more right to their (Sunni) mosques than they do]

Sheikh Muhammad Hassan al-Qadiri says in “al-Bahth fi Risalat al-‘Asharah” pg.192:

[With the content of the two Sahih (narrations) by ‘Abdullah bin Sinan and the narration of ibn Saleh. And the narration of al-Arjani and in the last two we are shown that the one who participates in their prayer will leave them his sins and leave with their rewards, and that the one who prays in their mosques shall take their rewards.]

Grand Ayatullah abu al-Qassem al-Khoei says in “Kitab al-Sawm” 1/262:

[It was stated in some narrations that if he prayed with them as Taqqiyah, then all the reward of those who are praying (in the mosque) will be his, and that Godly mercy shall descend from the heaven, and if it doesn’t find someone who is deserving of it then it will ascend, unless there is one (Shia) who is deserving of it, for this reason the entire reward of all of people in the mosque is given to him.]

The intelligent observer can see with clarity the amount of deep animosity these Shia scholars have stored inside their malicious hearts, this is the evil that they try to implant in the hearts of their followers, how else can we explain this hatred towards the innocent Muslims who left the world in order to pray for Allah? These Muslims stand in submission and obedience to their Lord, bowing their heads to their creator, and what is the result of all of this? they leave the mosque with no reward, instead they now have to carry on their backs the sins of the Taqqiyah practicing Shia.

The Seventh issue: Their belief that some of our actions during prayer are taken from Jews and Christians and Zoroastrians.

Come now dear reader and let us explore what the Shia think of the prayer of the Muslims in the four corners of the earth, do the Shia think that the Muslims are praying like the Prophet (SAWS) who instructed us in his Authentic Sahih Hadith in al-Bukhari: He (SAWS) stood in front of his companions and said: “Pray as you see me pray.”

We will give two examples:

Example -1- Saying “Ameen” after one finishes the recitation of al-Fatiha:

Leader of their sect al-Tusi in “al-Istibsar” 1/319 and “Tahtheeb al-Ahkam” 2/75:

[From Mu’awiyah bin Wahb: I asked abu ‘Abdullah (as): “Do I say ‘Ameen’ after I finish reciting: {not of those who have evoked [Your] anger or of those who are astray} (1:7)” He (as) said: “They are the Jews and the Christians.” And he did not answer to that.]

Shia scholar Bahaa-ul-Deen al-‘Amili comments on the narration in “al-Habl al-Mateen” pg.225:

[The seventeenth narration shows the impermissibility of saying “Ameen” during Salat(Prayer), because the fact that he (as) never answered it, instead him (as) going to explain the meaning of ” those who have evoked [Your] anger or of those who are astray” is a sign of Taqqiyah, and that some of those who were present (in that Majlis) were from the Mukhalifeen(Sunnies), so he (as) gave them the illusion that Mu’awiya’s question was regarding the explanation of the verse, and maybe when he (as) said “The Jews and the Christians” it was a form of demonization to the Mukhalifeen(Sunnies), and that what is meant is that the ones who say “Ameen” in prayer are the Jews and the Christians, meaning they are considered to be included in their ranks and a part of them]

al-‘Allamah Muhammad Baqir al-Sabzawari said in “Thakheerat al-Mi’ad” 1/2/277:

[Him (as) not answering that question, instead explaining the verse is a sign of Taqqiyah, and maybe we can consider his (as) saying “Jews and the Christians” as demonization for the Mukhalifeen and that what is meant is that those who say “Ameen” in prayer are a part of the Jews and Christians so one must not follow them in this]

Ayatullah abu al-Qassem al-Khoei says in “Kitab al-Salat” 4/541:

[But it is possible in “al-Jawahir” that what is intended from his (as) saying: “the Jews and the Christians” is the actual answer, that this is an act of theirs when their Imam is reciting and it is a demonization to the ‘Amah(Sunnies) who follow their path.]

al-‘Allamah ibn al-Mutahhar al-Helli says in “Tathkirat al-Fuqahaa” 3/162:

[Issue number (245): It is Haram(Forbidden) to say “Ameen” at the end of al-Hamd according to the Imamis(Shia), and the prayer is rendered invalid if one says this whether the one saying it is praying alone, or leading in congregation or being led.]

Leader of their Muhadditheen ibn Babaweih al-Qummi al-Saduq says in “Man la Yahduruh al-Faqih” 1/390:

[It is not permitted that one says “Ameen” after reciting the Fatiha of the book, as this is the saying of the Christians.]

Leader of their sect during his time, al-Mufid says in “al-Muqni’ah” pg.105:

[And must not say “Ameen” after finishing al-Hamd, like the Jews and their Nasibi brothers]

al-Shaheed al-Thani Zain-ul-Deen al-‘Amili says in “Rawd al-Jinan” pg.267:

[He (as) said: “They are the Jews and the Christians” where he refrained from answering that question and instead went on to explain the verse, and some of our companions explained this by saying that those who say “Ameen” are Jews and Christians.]

al-‘Allamah Aqa Reda al-Hamdani says in “Misbah al-Faqih” 2/1/312:

[I say: The fact that he (as) refrained from answering that question but went on to explain the verse shows that this matter is not acceptable according to him (as), but it was not openly declared out of Taqqiyah, and most probably what was meant by his (as) saying “Jews and Christians” was a hidden answer pointing to those who say it(Ameen), and it is also possible that he meant that the Jews and Christians are the ones who says it while their Imam is reciting as is permitted in their prayer, pointing to the ‘Amah(Sunnies) who follow their path.]

I ask the readers, do you say “Ameen” because Ahlul-Kitab say it? or because the Prophet (SAWS) instructed us to do this in the authentic narrations?

Example -2- Placing the right hand over the left hand while standing in prayer:

And placing the right over the left in prayer is what the Shia call “Takattuf” or “Takfeer”

al-‘Allamah ibn al-Mutahhar al-Helli says in “Tathkirat al-Fuqahaa” 3/259:

[Issue number (330): al-Takfeer invalidates the prayer and it is placing the right over the left during recitation and the scholars of the (Shia) sect agree on this – al-Sheikh and al-Murtada both said – (…) al-Baqir (as) said: “(…) And do not make Takfeer(Placing right over left), for it is something that the Zoroastrians do.” Also Muhammad bin Muslim asked one of the two (Imams) about the man who places in prayer his right hand over his left? He (as) replied: “That is (called) al-Takfeer, do not do it.”]

Leader of the sect during his time, Sheikh al-Mufid says in “al-Muqni’ah” pg.104-105:

[And must not place his right on his left in his prayer, like the Jews and the Christians and their followers from the misguided Nasibis(Enemies of Ahlul-bayt).]

al-‘Allamah Muhammad Hassan Najafi who was the head of the Shia Madhab in his time says in “Jawahir al-Kalam” 11/19:

[It was said about ‘Umar that when they brought him the prisoners from the non-Arabs(‘Ajam), they did Takfeer(placing right over left) in front of him, so he asked about it and they told him that they did this as a sign of submission in front of their Kings, so he saw that it was good to do it for Allah in prayer but did not pay attention to the ugliness of imitating the Zoroastrians in Shari’ah.]

al-‘Allamah Najm-ul-Deen al-Tibsi says in “al-Irsaal wal-Takfeer bayn al-Sunnah wal-Bid’ah” pg.13-14:

[There are many narrations from Ahlul-Bayt (as) prohibiting al-Takfeer and describing it as being from Zoroastrianism]

And he also said on pg.18-19:

[It was said that it was innovated by the Caliph ‘Umar bin al-Khattab, he took it from the non-Arab prisoners.]

Their scholar Sadiq al-Shirazi said in “Sharae’e al-Islam” by al-Helli, 1/72, margin #235:

[It is what is called “al-Takattuf” and “al-Takfeer” that the ‘Amah(Sunnies) practice, following the path of ‘Umar bin al-Khattab, and ‘Umar had taken it from the Zoroastrians then inserted it into Salat, this was one of his innovations and it was never done by the Prophet (SAWS) nor his Ahul-Bayt (as)]

Grand Ayatullah al-Khoei says in “Kitab al-Salat” 4/445-446:

[It is no secret that the act of “Takfeer” was never practiced during the time of the great Prophet (SAWS), even though it was narrated through several chains that do not come through us(Shia) thus they are all fabricated and false (…) Then we should not be hesitant to class it as one of the later innovations after his time (SAWS). As for the time of the first caliph as it is said or most probably the second as we see in the narration, that when they brought the Persian prisoners to ‘Umar, and he saw them in that state so he asked for the reason and they answered that this is what they do in front of their kings to glorify them, so he was pleased with it and ordered that it be done in prayer as Allah is more worthy of praise.]

Notice this poisonous attack against the Muslims and against  the pious and noble commander of believers ‘Umar bin al-Khattab (ra), how can these evil men reduce the Muslims all over the world to Zoroastrians!?

The Eight issue: They believe that refusing brotherhood with the rest of the Muslims and being their enemies is obligatory.

This is the final issue that we will be discussing to conclude this research, it will clearly deny all possibility of them actually wanting to pray with us out of love and unity, it will show that being the enemies of those who oppose them in belief is actually one of the main pillars of this horrible Shia sect.

We shall quote the biggest of their contemporary scholars and leaders of their sect:

al-‘Allamah al-Sheikh Muhammad Hassan al-Najafi has denied any form of brotherhood between them and the rest of the Muslims, he says in “Jawahir al-Kalam” 22/63:

[How can one even imagine brotherhood between the believer(Shia) and the Mukhalif(Sunni) after many narrations and verses have reached us through Tawatur saying that it is obligatory to be their enemies and that it is obligatory for us to disown them.]

Grand Ayatullah abu al-Qassem al-Khoei has admitted that the absence of brotherhood between the Shia and the rest of the Muslims is something established in their Madhab, he says in “Misbah al-Fuqahaa” 1/505:

[What we benefit from this verse and the narrations, is that backbiting(Gheebah) against a believer(Shia) is forbidden, and what is obviously clear is that there is no brotherhood or bonds between us(Shia) and the Mukhalifeen(Sunnies), this is also what is meant from the general narrations of occultation.]

Grand Ayatullah Muhammad Sa’eed al-Hakeem has admitted that one cannot include Ahlul-Sunnah in the circle of brotherhood with the Shia, he said in “Misbah al-Minhaj – al-Taqleed” pg.302:

[And what is obviously apparent is that there is no respect, no loyalty and no rights to the non-Believer(Sunni), but rather he is counted among the enemies. What was narrated  in cursing the Mukhalifeen(Sunnies) and insulting them and disowning them demands from us that we permit backbiting(Gheebah) them]

Their scholar Muhammad Radi al-Radawi says in “Al-Tuhfah al-Radawiyyah” under the chapter “These are our brothers and this is their belief concerning us”:

[Refuting those who misguide people by saying: There is no difference between us and Sunnies and we are brothers.

Our Imam al-Baqir says: “There is no religion for he who follows those who disobey Allah.” They (Sunnies) consider it a part of their religion to follow their leaders who have usurped the rights of Ahlul-Bayt and oppressed them. Our Imam al-Rida says: “Whoever befriends the one who disowns us or disowns our friend or praises one who criticizes us  or honors he who opposes us, then we are not from him and he is not from us.” So where did this brother-hood between us and them come from? Due tell if you are truthful.]

Finally, the Wali al-Faqih and leader of the Iranian republic, Grand Ayatullah al-Khomeini says in “al-Makasib al-Muharramah” 1/251 when commenting on the narration of their Imam: “Backbiting(Gheebah) is when you say about your brother something that Allah has concealed”, Khomeini said:

[When it comes to explaining it we took brotherhood into consideration, but the rest (of the Muslims) are not our brothers even if they are (called) Muslims.]

And on the same page he says:

[And one should not doubt that all of the narrations about backbiting are only talking about the believer who is loyal to the truthful Imam (as)]

And on pg.250 he also says:

[And those (narrations) mentioning a brother do not include them(Sunnies) as there is no brotherhood between us and them, after it was made obligatory to disown them and their sect and their leaders as the narrations and Usool stated.]

This is how Khomeini laid out the foundations of his republic of Iran, this is how Iran should treat its Muslim neighbors such as Afghanistan and ‘Iraq, but to be fair Khomeini was not the one to invent this matter, this was deeply rooted in their books of Hadith and Usool as he stated.


This O dear reader was a quick tour in the depths of their books, although it has yielded dangerous results of the utmost importance, because it uncovered a phenomenon that affects the daily lives of the Muslims and how they interact and coexist with the Twelver Shia sect. In the interest of fairness we say that many of the Shia laymen do not know this stuff, many who are fortunate to read this book will be in a state of shock and maybe it could push them to dig deeper into their Madhab and research it in order to know its true face.

I do not blame many of the pious pure hearted Muslim laymen for believing the Shia “Call to unity” and I do not blame them for buying into that act called “Congregation prayer with the Shia”, because the Imami Shia and especially their scholars have perfected the art of trickery and deceit, and I wouldn’t expect any less from a sect that has been living on Taqqiyah and feeding on lies to survive for the past couple of centuries, but the Sunnah of Allah in this earth cannot be broken nor changed, as Allah has promised to expose the evil in their chests for all to see.

{Or do those in whose hearts is disease think that Allah would never expose their [feelings of] hatred?}

[Holy Quran – 47:29]

As for the Muslims of pure hearts and healthy minds, these verses are for you to ponder:

{O you who have believed, do not take as intimates those other than yourselves, for they will not spare you [any] ruin. They wish you would have hardship. Hatred has already appeared from their mouths, and what their breasts conceal is greater. We have certainly made clear to you the signs, if you will use reason. Here you are loving them but they are not loving you, while you believe in the Scripture – all of it. And when they meet you, they say, “We believe.” But when they are alone, they bite their fingertips at you in rage. Say, “Die in your rage. Indeed, Allah is Knowing of that within the breasts.”}

[Holy Quran – 3:118-119]

– The End –

Written by the ex-Shia, our respected Sheikh ‘Abdul-Malik al-Shafi’i under the original title of “Salat al-Shia fi Masajid al-Muslimeen”, translation done by Hani al-Tarabulsi al-Shafi’i on March/18/2012.

1 Comment

  1. al-Salamu `Aleykum,

    I translated it, summarized it then posted it after asking permission from its original author, the ex-Shia Sheikh `Abdul-Malik bin `Abdul-Rahman al-Shafi`i.

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