Liars & Weak Transmitters Endorsed by the Shia


Twelver theology is primarily derived from a vast pool of reports that is mostly independent of the Sunni hadith corpus. The independence of these two bodies of transmission is the result of various factors, mainly: (1) the time gap between the authorship of Sunni and Shi’ite hadith collections and (2) the transmission through generally distinct sources.

These two independent pools of transmission, however, intersect at various instances. This intersection mostly manifests in two phenomena: (1) shared transmitters and (2) shared reports. Such instances  give us substantial insight into both traditions and how they respectively dealt with various shared transmitters and reports.

When evaluating shared transmitters in both traditions, one recognizes a rising problem. The Shi’ite biographical (rijali) tradition, which came a couple centuries after the Sunni tradition, regularly endorsed individuals who were identified as forgers, liars and weak transmitters in the Sunni tradition.

The implications of this phenomenon are ginormous: it may finally demonstrate how Shi’ite authorities arbitrarily endorsed unreliable transmitters. These arbitrary endorsements would have then eventually lead to the formation of the allegedly “authentic” Twelver hadith canon, which is the basis of Shi’ite theology today.

The ultimate implication of this phenomenon is that authentication of reports in the Twelver tradition is arbitrary, and that Shi’ites today cannot actually discern the weak from the authentic in their sources

The Authority of Sunni Biographers

Before reading the list, the observer may (rightfully) ask: “What reasons are there for one to believe that Sunni authorities, in such instances, are more authoritative than Shi’ite authorities? Could it not be that the Sunni biographers arbitrarily criticized transmitters endorsed by the Shia?”

The answer to this question is simple and it manifests in several aspects:

1.Sunni biographers predated Shi’ite biographers.

As seen in almost every single example presented below, Sunni authorities predated the Shi’ite authorities by a significant period of time. The gap in time is often more than two centuries long! This precedence entails that Sunni authorities had greater access and exposure to earlier transmitters.

This can be especially observed in examples # 5, 15, 16, 19, 25, and 32. In these examples the Sunni critics explicitly mentioned meeting and encountering the 3rd and 2nd century transmitters they had criticized. Then, 5th century Shi’ite authorities, who never met any of these transmitters, magically (and ambiguously) endorsed them in their works without sharing any of their reasoning.

Sunni authorities clearly were more acquainted with these transmitters than the Shi’ite authorities. We have further elaborated on this phenomenon in our article, The Mohseni Dilemma.

2. Some of these transmitters were Sunni

Shi’ite polemicists often claim that Sunni authorities arbitrarily criticized Shi’ite transmitters due to their theological biases. This proposition collapses when one recognizes that many of these contested transmitters in both traditions were Sunnis..

This can be seen in examples # 1, 14, 16, 19, and 20, where the Shi’ite authorities acknowledged that the transmitters were “Ammi” (Sunni). Thus, it cannot be said the criticism of these transmitters was due to the theological biases of Sunni authorities.

Similarly, there are various instances where Sunni authorities endorsed the reliability of Shi’ite transmitters. Shia website,, compiled a list of Shi’ite transmitters in Sahih Al-Bukhari. There are tens and hundreds of other heretical transmitters who were endorsed by Sunni authorities. Thus, it is evident that the endorsement and criticism of transmitters in Sunni biographical sources is not based on arbitrary sectarian biases.

3.The diversity and multiplicity of Sunni verdicts

As one can see in the list below, Sunni authorities came from various eras, leanings and regions. There is significant diversity among Sunni scholarship. Similarly, there is a substantial amount of corroboration among the verdicts of Sunni authorities.

Shi’ite rijali scholarship is mostly limited to a handful of recurring figures. Corroborating verdicts are also quite rare.

This phenomenon can be especially seen in examples # 6, 11, 13, 14, 15, 16, 19, 26, 31, and 32, In these examples, a vast and diverse array of Sunni authorities corroborate each other, as opposed to the Shi’ite verdicts which are mostly singular.

4.The transparency of Sunni verdicts

The methodology espoused by the Sunni critics is well-known and expounded upon in various works. This reality can be demonstrated in examples # 3, 4, 6, 7, 10, 11, 13, 14, 16 – 19, 23, 25, 31 and 32.

In these examples, the Sunni critics have transparently outlined their reasoning behind their verdicts. As seen, transmitters are often criticized for uncorroborated transmission or the transmission of distorted reports. In other instances, the critics outlined their own experiences with some of these transmitters, which led them to conclude that they were unreliable.

The reasoning behind the Shi’ite endorsements of these transmitters, however, is ambiguous and unknown. In fact, we do not know whether the verdicts were based on any objective parameters.

The aforementioned reasons, along with many others, serve to demonstrate the superiority of Sunni biographers to their Shi’ite counterparts.  They cumulatively demonstrate why the Sunni verdicts are more authoritative than the Shi’ite verdicts when they conflict.

Nevertheless, let us evaluate the list of  transmitters at hand today:

List of Liars & Weak Transmitters Endorsed by the Shia:

In this list, I have mentioned 33 liars and weak transmitters that were arbitrarily endorsed and relied upon by the Shia. I specifically listed the death date of each Sunni/Shi’ite authority to demonstrate the proximity of Sunni critics to these transmitters, as compared to the Shi’ite authorities who generally came centuries and many decades later.

Some of these transmitters were liars and forgers. Others were truthful individuals who severely erred in the transmission of hadith, such that they were declared weak.

1. ‘Abbad b. Suhayb Al-Kulaybi Al-Basri

Sunni Authorities:    (Lisan Al-Mizan 4/390)

  • Ibn Al-Madini (d. 234): “His hadith has been ejected.”
  • Al-Bukhari (d. 256), Al-Nasa’i (d. 303) and others said: “He is abandoned (matruk).”
  • Ibn Hibban (d. 354): “He was a Qadari propagator. With that being said, he also transmitted things, which even a beginner in hadith would attest to its fabrication.” He then listed a few of his fabrications.

Shi’ite Authorities:    (Mo’jam Rijal Al-Hadith 10/232)

  • Al-Najashi (d. 450): “A reliable Basran.”
  • Al-Barqi (274): “He is a Kufan ‘Ammi (Sunni).”

2. Aban b. ‘Uthman Al-Ahmar

Sunni Authorities:    (Lisan Al-Mizan 1/226)

  • Al-‘Uqayli (d. 322) weakened him.
  • Ibn Hibban (d. 354): “He errs in transmission and makes delusions in transmission.”

Shi’ite Authorities:   (Mo’jam Rijal Al-Hadith  1/146)

  • Al-Kashi (d. 350): “The sect has agreed upon the authentication of everything that is authentic to them, and believing them in what they say.’  He then listed six transmitters, one of them being Aban b. ‘Uthman.

3. ‘Abbas b. ‘Umar Al-Kaludhani

Sunni Authorities:    (Tarikh Baghdad 14/57)

  • Al-Khatib Al-Baghdadi (d. 463): “I wrote hadith from him, and he was a Rafidi. He was unreliable in hadith. He gave me a book of hadith which he claimed to have heard from his father’s uncle, from Humayd b. Al-Rabi’, Al-Hasan b. ‘Arafah and similar transmitters. I copied several papers from it, but it then became apparent to me, so I returned the book to him. I then tore what I had copied from it. Near the end of his life, Al-‘Abbas claimed to have heard hadith from the qadhi, Abu ‘Abdillah Al-Mahamili. He went to the disapproved reports Ibn ‘Uqdah had transmitted in the fada’il, and he then ascribed them to Al-Mahamili and transmitted them from him.”

Shi’ite Authorities:    (Mo’jam Rijal Al-Hadith 10/256)

  • Al-Khoei (d. 1413): “He is reliable because he is from the teachers of Al-Najashi (d. 450).”

4. ‘Abdul’A’la b. A’yan Al-Kufi

Sunni Authorities:    (Tahdhib Al-Tahdhib 6/93)

  • Al-‘Uqayli (d. 322): “He transmitted disapproved things, none of which are confirmed.”
  • Ibn Hibban (d. 354): “It is not permissible to rely upon him. He is disapproved (munkar).”
  • Al-Daraqutni (d. 385): “He is not reliable.”
  • Abu Nu’aym Al-Asbahani (d. 430): “He transmitted disapproved reports from Yahya b. Abi Kathir. He transmitted from ‘Ubaydillah b. Musa. He is worthless.”

Shi’ite Authorities:    (Mo’jam Rijal Al-Hadith 10/276)

  • Al-Mufid (d. 413) endorsed his reliability.

5. ‘Abdulghaffar b. Al-Qassem Al-Ansari, Abu Maryam

Sunni Authorities:    (Lisan Al-Mizan 5/226-228)

  • Yahya b. Ma’in (d. 233): “He’s worthless.”
  • Ibn Al-Madini (d. 234): “He used to fabricate hadiths.”
  • Ahmed b. Hanbal (d. 241): “He used to transmit blunders regarding ‘Uthman. Most of his hadiths are lies.”
  • Al-Bukhari (d. 256): “He is not strong according to them.”
  • Abu Dawud (d. 275) quoted a few critics accusing him of forgery. Then, Abu Dawud said: “And I bear witness that Abu Maryam is a liar, for I have met him and heard from him. His name is ‘Abdulghaffar b. Al-Qassem.”
  • Abu Hatem (d. 277) and Al-Nasa’i (d. 303) said: “He is abandoned (matruk).”
  • Al-Saji (d. 307), Al-‘Uqayli (d. 307), and Ibn Al-Jarud (d. 307) weakened him.
  • Al-Daraqutni (d. 385): “He is abandoned (matruk), and he is the sheikh of Shu’bah. Shu’bah praised him, but his true status did not become apparent to him. He lived after Shu’bah transmitting distorted content.”

Shi’ite Authorities:    (Mo’jam Rijal Al-Hadith 11/60)

  • Al-Najashi (d. 450): “He is reliable.”
  • The Sunni critic, Ibn ‘Adiyy, said: “I heard Ibn ‘Uqdah praise Abu Maryam, complement him and exaggerate in his status.” Ibn ‘Adiyy then said: “Ibn ‘Uqdah [d. 322] merely leaned towards him in this manner due to his extremism in Shi’ism.” (Lisan Al-Mizan 5/228)

6. ‘Abdullah b. Maymun Al-Qaddah Al-Makhzumi

Sunni Authorities:    (Tahdib Al-Tahdhib 6/49)

  • Al-Bukhari (d. 256): “He is ejected in hadith.”
  • Abu Zur’ah (d. 264): “He is extremely weak in hadith.”
  • Abu Hatem (d. 277) and Al-Tirmidhi (d. 279) said: “He is disapproved (munkar) in hadith.”
  • Al-Nasa’i (d. 303): “He is weak.”
  • Ibn Hibban (d. 354): “He transmits blunderous reports from reliable transmitters. He cannot be relied upon whenever he exclusively transmits a report.”
  • Ibn ‘Adiyy (d. 365): “Most of what he transmits is not is not corroborated.”
  • Al-Hakem (d. 405): “He transmitted fabricated reports from ‘Ubaydillah from Ibn ‘Umar.”
  • Abu Nu’aym (d. 430): “He trnasmitted disapproved reports (manakir).”

Shi’ite Authorities:    (Mo’jam Rijal Al-Hadith 11/378)

  • Al-Najashi (d. 450): “He was reliable.”

7. ‘AbdulMu’min b. Al-Qassem Al-Ansari

Sunni Authorities:    (Lisan Al-Mizan 5/284)

  • Al-‘Uqayli (d. 322): “A Shi’ite who is not corroborated in most of his transmission.”

Shi’ite Authorities:    (Mo’jam Rijal Al-Hadith 12/11)

  • Al-Najashi (d. 450): “He is reliable, him and his brother.

8. ‘Abdurrahman b. Muhammad Al-‘Irzami

Sunni Authorities:    (Lisan Al-Mizan 5/124)

  • Abu Hatem Al-Razi (d. 277): “He is not strong.”
  • Ibn Hibban (d. 354): “His transmission can be cited as a corroboration as long as he does not transmit from his father.”
  • Al-Daraqutni (d. 385) weakened him.

Shi’ite Authorities:    (Mo’jam Rijal Al-Hadith 10/379)

  • Al-Najashi (d. 450): “He is reliable.”

9. Ahmed b. ‘Ali b. Mahdi b. Sadaqah

Sunni Authorities:    (Lisan Al-Mizan 1/539)

  • Al-Daraqutni (d. 385) accused him of fabricating hadiths.
  • Ibn Taher Al-Maqdisi (d. 507): “He transmitted a fabricated trasncription from his father, from ‘Ali b. Musa Al-Rida, and it contains reports he had stolen.” (Ibn Al-Jawzi 1/81)

Shi’ite Authorities:   (Al-Mufid min Mo’jam Rijal Al-Hadith 35)

  • Al-Jawaheri: “He is the teacher of Ibn Qulawayh [d. 368] in Kamlil Al-Ziyarat; therefore, he is reliable.”

10. Ahmed b. Maytham b. Abi Nu’aym

Sunni Authorities:    (Lisan Al-Mizan 1/682)

  • Ibn Hibban (d. 354): “He transmitted distorted reports” and “he transmitted disapproved reports from ‘Ali b. Qadim”.
  • Al-Daraqutni (d. 385) weakened him.

Shi’ite Authorities:    (Mo’jam Rijal Al-Hadith 3/140-141)

  • Al-Najashi (d. 450): “He was among the reliable transmitters of our Kufan companions and their jurists. He authored books, none of which I have seen.”
  • Al-Tusi (d. 460): “He was among the reliable transmitters of our Kufan companions and their jurists. He has several works etc.”

11. ‘Amr b. Khaled Al-Wasiti

Sunni Authorities:   (Tahdhib Al-Tahdhib 8/26-27)

  • Waki’ b. Al-Jarrah (d. 196): “He used to be our neighbor. When we exposed him for his lies, he moved to Wasit.”
  • Yahya b. Ma’in (d. 233): “He is a liar. He is not reliable nor is he trustworthy.”
  • Ishaq b. Rahuyah (d. 238) and Abu Zur’ah (d. 265): “He used to fabricate hadiths.”
  • Ahmed b. Hanbal (d. 241): “He is abandoned in hadith. He is worthless.” Al-Athram also quoted Ahmed saying: “He is a liar. He transmits fabricated reports from Zayd b. ‘Ali, from his fathers.”
  • Ibn Al-Barqi (d. 249) accused him of forgery.
  • Al-Bukhari (d. 256): “He is disapproved in hadith.”
  • Al-Jawzajani (d. 259): “He is not reliable.”
  • Abu Dawud (d. 275): “He is a liar.”
  • Abu Hatem Al-Razi (d. 277): “He is abandoned in hadith, ejected in hadith. He should not be worked with.”
  • Al-Nasa’i (d. 303): “He is not reliable, and his hadith should not be written.”
  • Ibn Sa’id (d. 318): “His hadith should not be written.”
  • Al-Daraqutni (d. 385): “He is abandoned (matruk).”
  • Al-Hakem (d. 405): “He transmits fabricated reports from Zaid b. ‘Ali.”
  • Abu Nu’aym (d. 430): “He is worthless.”

Shi’ite Authorities:   (Mo’jam Rijal Al-Hadith 14/103)

  • Ibn Faddal (d. 224) endorsed his reliability.

12. ‘Amr b. ‘Uthman Al-Thaqafi

Sunni Authorities:   (Lisan Al-Mizan 6/218)

  • Al-‘Uqayli (d. 322): “There is delusion in his transmission. He is not corroborated in it.”

Shi’ite Authorities:   (Mo’jam Rijal Al-Hadith 14/128)

  • Al-Najashi (d. 450): “A reliable Kufan.”

13. Al-Hareth b. ‘Imran Al-Ja’fari

Sunni Authorities:    (Tahdhib Al-Tahdhib 2/152)

  • Abu Zur’ah Al-Razi (d. 264): “He is weak in hadith, extremely weak.”
  • Abu Hatem Al-Razi (d. 277): “He is not strong in hadith.”
  • Ibn Hibban (d. 354): “He fabricates reports and ascribes them to reliable transmitters.”
  • Ibn ‘Adiyy (d.365): “Al-Hareth has other reports he transmitted from Ja’far b. Muhammad, none of which are corroborated by reliable transmitters. The weakness is apparent in his reports.”
  • Al-Daraqutni (d. 385): “He is abandoned (matruk).”

Shi’ite Authorities:    (Mo’jam Rijal Al-Hadith 5/176)

  • Al-Najashi (d. 450): “A reliable Kufan transmitter.”

14. Al-Hussain b. ‘Ulwan Al-Kalbi

Sunni Authorities:    (Lisan Al-Mizan 3/189-191)

  • Yahya b. Ma’in (d. 233): “He is a liar.”
  • ‘Ali b. AL-Madini (d. 234): “He is very weak.”
  • Mahmud b. Ghaylan (d. 239): “Ahmed b. Hanbal, Ibn Ma’in, and Abu Khaythamah ejected his hadith.”
  • Muhammad b. ‘Abdurrahim Sa’iqah (d. 255): “Ibn ‘Ulwan used to transmit fabricated reports from Hisham and Ibn ‘Ajlan.”
  • Abu Hatem (d. 277) and Al-Daraqutni (d. 385) said: “He is abandoned (matruk).”
  • Saleh Jazarah (d. 293): “He used to fabricate reports.”
  • Al-Nasa’i (d. 303): “He is extremely weak, weak and abandoned in hadith.”
  • Ibn Abi Hatem (d. 327): “He is a liar.”
  • Ibn Hibban (d. 354): “He used to fabricate reports and ascribe them to Hisham and others in a manner that makes it impermissible to write his hadith except in the context of amazement.” Ibn Hibban then listed several of his forgeries.

Shi’ite Authorities:    (Mo’jam Rijal Al-Hadith 5/376)

  • Al-Najashi (d. 450): “A Kufan ‘Ammi (Sunni). His brother, Al-Hassan, who is nicknamed Abu Muhammad, is of greater proximity to us. He is a reliable transmitter.”
  • Ibn ‘Uqdah (d. 332) allegedly endorsed him as well.

15. ‘Asem b. Sulayman Al-Kuzi

Sunni Authorities:    (Lisan Al-Mizan 4/368-370)

  • Abu Dawud Al-Tayalisi (d. 204): “He is a liar.”
  • Al-Fallas (d. 249): “He used to fabricate hadiths. I have never seen anyone like him.” Al-Fallas then listed several of his fabrications.
  • Abu Hatem Al-Razi (d. 277) and Al-Nasa’i (d. 303) said: “He is abandoned (matruk).”
  • Al-Saji (d. 307): “An abandoned transmitter who fabricates hadiths.”
  • Al-‘Uqayli (d. 322): “His transmission has been overwhelmed by delusion.”
  • Ibn Hibban (d. 354): “It is not permissible to write his hadiths except in the context of amazement.” He then listed several fabrications of his.
  • Ibn ‘Adiyy (d. 365): “He is among those who fabricate hadiths.”
  • Al-Daraqutni (d. 385): “He is a liar.”

Shi’ite Authorities:    (Mo’jam Rijal Al-Hadith 10/201)

  • Al-Najashi (d. 450): “A reliable transmitter.”

16. Asram b. Hawshab

Sunni Authorities:    (Lisan Al-Mizan 2/210-212)

  • Yahya b. Ma’in (d. 233) said: “He was a vile liar.”
  • Ibn Al-Madini (d. 234) said: “I wrote hadith from him in Hamadhan, and I then ejected it.”
  • Al-Fallas (d. 249) said: “An abandoned transmitter who espoused irjaa’.”
  • Al-Bukhari (d. 256), Muslim (d. 261), and Al-Nasa’i (d. 303) said: “He is abandoned (matruk).”
  • Al-Jawzajani (d. 259) said: “I wrote hadith from him in Hamadhan in 230, and he was weak.”
  • Abu Hatem Al-Razi (d. 277) said: “He is abandoned (matruk) in hadith. He claimed to have heard hadith from Ziyad b. Sa’d, so he was condemned. Yahya b. Ma’in criticized him.”
  • Ibn Hibban (d. 354) said: “He fabricates reports and ascribes them to reliable transmitters.”
  • Al-Daraqutni (d. 385) said: “He is disapproved (munkar) in hadith.”
  • Al-Hakem(d. 405) and Al-Naqqash (d. 414) said: “He transmits fabricated reports.”
  • Al-Khalili (d. 446) said: “He transmitted disapproved reports from Nahshal, from Al-Dahhak, from Ibn ‘Abbas. The imams initially transmitted hadith from him, but they then recognized his weakness, so they abandoned him.”

Shi’ite Authorities:    (Mo’jam Rijal Al-Hadith 4/136)

  • Al-Najashi (d. 450) said: “A  reliable ‘Ammi (Sunni) transmitter. He transmitted a transcription from Abu ‘Abdillah.”

17. Hammad b. ‘Isa Al-Juhani

Sunni Authorities:    (Tahdhib Al-Tahdhib 3/19)

  • Ibn Ma’in (d. 233): “A pious sheikh.”
  • Abu Hatem (d. 277): “He is weak in hadith.”
  • Abu Dawud (d. 275): “He is weak; he transmitted disapproved reports.”
  • Ibn Hibban (d. 354): “He transmits distorted things from Ibn Jurayj and ‘Abdulaziz b. ‘Umar b. ‘Abdulaziz which any expert in hadith would assume are fabricated. He cannot be relied upon.”
  • Al-Daraqutni (d. 385) weakened him.
  • Al-Hakem (d. 404) and Al-Naqqash (d. 414): “He transmitted fabricated reports from Ibn Jurayj and Ja’far Al-Sadeq.”
  • Ibn Makula (d. 475): “They weakened his hadith.”

Shi’ite Authorities:    (Mo’jam Rijal Al-Hadith 7/236-239)

  • Al-Kashi (d. 350): “The sect has unanimously agreed upon authenticating what is authentic to them, and they believe them in what they say.” He then mentioned Hammad among them.
  • Al-Najashi (d. 450): “He was reliable in his hadith, truthful.”
  • Al-Tusi (d. 460): “He is reliable.”

18. Harun b. Al-Jahm b. Thuwayr

Sunni Authorities:    (Lisan Al-Mizan 8/303)

  • Al-‘Uqayli (d. 322): “He conflicts with others in his transmission, and he is not well known for the transmission of hadith.”

Shi’ite Authorities:    (Mo’jam Rijal Al-Hadith 20/241)

  • Al-Najashi (d. 450): “A reliable Kufan.”

19. Ishaq b. Bishr, Abu Hudhayfah

Sunni Authorities:    (Lisan Al-Mizan 2/44-46)

  • Ibn Al-Madini (d. 234) accused him of forgery.
  • Abu Bakr b. Abi Shaybah (d. 235): “He is a liar.”
  • Ishaq Al-Kawsaj (d. 251): “Abu Hudhayfah once visited us, and he transmitted from Ibn Tawus and other major tabi’in who had died prior to Humayd Al-Tawil.” We asked him: “Have you written hadith from Humayd Al-Tawil?” He became anxious and said: “Have you come here to mock me?! My grandfather never saw Humayd!”  We then told him: “You are transmitting reports from transmitters who died before Humayd!” We then recognized his weakness and that he did not understand what he was saying.
  • Muslim (d. 261): “The people have abandoned his hadith.”
  • Al-‘Uqayli (d. 322): “An unknown transmitter who transmitted disapproved reports that have no basis.”
  • Ibn Hibban (d. 354): “It is not permissible to write his hadith except in the context of amazement.”
  • Ibn ‘Adiyy (d. 365): “His hadiths are disapproved, either in their isnad or in their matn, no one corroborates him in any of them.”
  • Al-Azdi (d. 374): “An abandoned and debased transmitter who was accused of forgery.”
  • Al-Daraqutni (d. 385): “An abandoned liar.”
  • Al-Naqqash (d. 414): ‘He fabricates hadith.”
  • Al-Khalili (d. 446): “He was accused of fabricating reports.”
  • Al-Khatib (d. 464): “He was not reliable.”

Shi’ite Authorities:   (Mo’jam Rijal Al-hadith 3/198)

  • Al-Najashi (d. 450): “He is reliable. He transmitted from Abu ‘Abdillah (as). He is from the Ammah (A Sunni).”

20. Isma’il b. Abi Ziyad Al-Sukuni

Sunni Authorities:    (Lisan Al-Mizan 2/126-127)

  • Yahya b. Ma’in (d. 233): “He is a liar.”
  • Abu Hatem (d. 277): “He is unknown.”
  • Al-Azdi (d. 377): “He is a vile liar.”

Shi’ite Authorities:    (Mo’jam Rijal Al-hadith 4/21-22)

  • Al-Barqi (d. 274): “A Kufan. The name of Abu Ziyad is Muslim. He transmitted hadith from the ‘Awamm (Sunnis).”
  • Al-Tusi (d. 460) stated that the sect has acted upon his transmission. Al-Khoei thus concluded that he was reliable.
  • Al-Hilli (d. 726): “He was a ‘Ammi (Sunni).”

21. Lut b. Yahya, Abu Mikhnaf

Sunni Authorities:   (Lisan Al-Mizan 6/430)

  • Ibn Ma’in (d. 233): “He is not reliable.”
  • Abu Hatem (d. 277) and others abandoned his transmission.
  • Al-‘Uqayli (d. 322) weakened him.
  • Ibn ‘Adiyy (d. 365): “A flaming Shi’ite who is the transmitter of their reports.”
  • Al-Daraqutni (d. 385): “He is weak.”

Shi’ite Authorities:   (Mo’jam Rijal Al-hadith 15/140)

  • Al-Najashi (d. 450): “He was trusted in what he transmitted.”

22. Ma’tab, the Mawla of Ja’far

Sunni Authorities:    (Lisan Al-Mizan 8/105, 127)

  • Yahya b Ma’in (d. 233): “If reliable transmitters transmit hadith from Ja’far Al-Sadiq, then his [Ja’far’s] hadith is steadfast; but if the likes of Ma’tab and Hammad b. ‘Isa transmit from him, then it is worthless.”
  • Al-Saji (d. 307) weakened him.
  • Al-Azdi (d. 374): “He is a liar. It is said that his name was Mughith. He has a false hadith.”

Shi’ite Authorities:    (Mo’jam Rijal Al-Hadith 19/248)

  • Al-Tusi (d. 460): “He is a a reliable transmitter.”

23. Muhammad b. Al-Qassem b. Zakariyya Al-Muharibi

Sunni Authorities:    (Lisan Al-Mizan 7/449)

  • Abu Al-Hassan b. Hammad (d. 384): “He used believe in the raj’ah, and he never had an Asl (notes) to be seen. He transmitted Kitab Al-Nahr from Hussain b. Nasr b. Muzahem, while not having heard it.”

Shi’ite Authorities:    (Mo’jam Rijal Al-Hadith 18/165)

  • Al-Najashi (d. 450): “A reliable transmitter from among our companions.”

24. Muhammad b. Hammad b. Zaid Al-Harithi

Sunni Authorities:    (Lisan Al-Mizan 7/102)

  • Ibn Mandah (d. 470): “He has disapproved reports.”

Shi’ite Authorities:    (Mo’jam Rijal Al-Hadith 17/41)

  • Al-Najashi (d. 450): “He is reliable.”

25. Muhammad b. Muhammad b. Al-Ash’ath

Sunni Authorities:    (Lisan Al-Mizan 7/476-477)

  • Ibn ‘Adiyy (d. 365):  I transcribed hadith from him. His staunchness in Shi’ism led him to disseminate a transcription that consisted of around 1000 reports transmitted from Musa b. Isma’il b. Musa b. Ja’far, from his father, from his grandfather, from his fathers, with a soft handwriting and new parchment. Most of it consisted of disapproved reports (مناكير).We then brought this up to Al-Husain b. ‘Ali b. Al-Husain b. ‘Umar b. ‘Ali b. Al-Husain Al-‘Alawi, the sheikh of Ahlulbait in Egypt. He stated that Musa was his neighbor in the city for 40 years and that he never mentioned that he had transmission from his father or anyone else.
  • Al-Daraqutni (d. 385): “He was a wonder among Allah’s wonders. He fabricated that book, Al-‘Alawiyyat.”

Shi’ite Authorities:    (Mo’jam Rijal Al-Hadtth 18/200)

  • Al-Najashi (d. 450): “He is reliable and among our companions in Egypt. “

We have written an article that further analyzes how this liar was exposed.

26. Muhammad b. ‘Uthman b. Al-Hasan Al-Nasibi

Sunni Authorities:   (Lisan Al-Mizan 7/343)

  • Al-Khatib Al-Baghdadi (d. 464): “I asked Al-Azhari [d. 435] about Al-Nasib.” He said: “He is a liar. He presented the books of Ibn Al-Munadi to us. On them, he wrote his sama’ (claim of transmission) with his own handwriting.” So I asked him: “When did you hear this book?” He said: “In 435.” I then told him: “But you only came to Baghdad after 440 !” and he did not respond with anything. His transmission was initially steadfast, and he had reliably transmitted from the Shamis.
  • Ibn Al-Bada (d. 420): “I took hadith from him until the people of hadith prohibited me from doing so, so I stopped transmitting from him.”
  • Al-Saymari (d. 436): “He was weak in his transmission and his judicial testimonies.”
  • Ibn Al-Thallaj (d. 387): “He was weak in his transmission, but trusted in his judicial testimonies.”
  • Hamzah Al-Daqqaq (d. 424): “He transmitted and fabricated disapproved reports for the Shia.”

Shi’ite Authorities:   (Mo’jam Rijal Al-Hadith 17/294)

  • Al-Khoei (d. 1413): “He is reliable because he is from the teachers of Al-Najashi [d. 450].”

27. Sabbah b. Yahya Al-Muzani

Sunni Authorities:    (Lisan Al-Mizan 4/303 & Al-Majruhin 1/377)

  • Al-Bukhari (d. 256): “fihi nazar”, which is indicative of his severe weakness.
  • Ibn Hibban (d. 354): “He used to err in transmission such that he cannot be relied upon when he exclusively transmits a report.”

Shi’ite Authorities:    (Mo’jam Rijal Al-Hadith 10/104)

  • Al-Najashi (d. 450): “A reliable Kufan.”
  • Ibn Al-Ghada’iri (d. 5th century): “A Zaidi Kufan. His hadith among our companions is weak. It can be cited as corroborating evidence.”

28. Sallam b. Abi ‘Amrah Al-Khurasani

Sunni Authorities:    (Tahdhib Al-Tahdhib 4/286)

  • Yahya b. Ma’in (d. 233): “He is worthless.”
  • Ibn Hibban (d. 354) : “He transmits distorted reports from reliable transmitters. His transmission cannot be relied upon.”
  • Al-Azdi (d. 374): “He is extremely weak in hadith.”

Shi’ite Authorities:    (Mo’jam Rijal Al-Hadith 9/178)

  • Al-Najashi (d. 450): “He is a reliable transmitter.”

29. Sariyy b. ‘Abdillah b. Ya’qub Al-Kufi

Sunni Authorities:    (Lisan Al-Mizan 4/23)

  • Ibn ‘Adiyy (d. 365): “He has reports, and he is not well-known. He is criticized for some of his reports.”

Shi’ite Authorities:    (Mo’jam Rijal Al-Hadith 9/44)

  • Al-Najashi (d. 450): “A reliable Kufan.

30.  Thabit b. Dinar, Abu Hamzah Al-Thumali

Sunni Authorities:    (Tahdib Al-Tahdhib 2/7-8)

  • ‘Umar b. Hafs b. Ghiyath (d. 222): “My father abandoned the hadith of Abu Hamzah Al-Thumali.”
  • Ibn Sa’d (d. 230): “He was weak.”
  • Yahya b. Ma’in (d. 233): “He is worthless.”
  • Ahmed b. Hanbal (d. 241): “He is weak, he is worthless.”
  • ‘Amr Al-Fallas (d. 249): “He is not reliable.”
  • Al-Jawzajani (d. 259): “He was extremely weak (wahi) in hadith.”
  • Abu Zur’ah (d. 265): “He is weak.”
  • Abu Hatem (d. 277): “He is weak in hadith. His hadith should be written but it cannot be relied upon.”
  • Ya’qub b. Sufyan (d. 277): “He is weak.”
  • Al-Nasa’i (d. 303): “He is not reliable.”
  • Al-‘Uqayli (d. 322), Al-Dulabi (d. 310), and Ibn Al-Jarud (d. 307) and others weakened him.
  • Ibn Hibban (d. 354): “He was very delusional in his transmission such that he cannot be relied upon whenever he exclusively transmits anything, along with his extremism in Shi’ism.”
  • Ibn ‘Adiyy (d. 365): “His weakness is apparent in his transmission, and he is closer to weakness.”
  • Al-Daraqutni (d. 385): “He is abandoned (matruk).”
  • Ibn ‘Abdilbarr (d. 463): “He is not strongaccording to them. There was weakness in his hadith.”

Shi’ite Authorities:    (Mo’jam Rijal Al-Hadith 4/293-295)

  • Hamdawayh b. Nasir (d. early 4th century) endorsed his reliability.
  • Ibn Al-Ji’abi (d. 355): “He was from our virtuous companions and reliable transmitters.”
  • Al-Saduq (d. 381): “His reliable. He met four of the Imams, ‘Ali b. Al-Hussain, Muhammad b. ‘Ali, Ja’far b. Muhammad, and Musa b. Ja’far (as).”
  • Al-Najasi (d. 460): “He is reliable.”
  • Al-Tusi (d. 460): “He is reliable.”

31. ‘Ubaydullah b. Al-Walid Al-Wassafi

Sunni Authorities:   (Tahdhib Al-Tahdhib 7/55-56)

  • Yahya b. Ma’in (d. 233), Abu Zur’ah (d. 265) and Abu Hatem (d. 277) said: “He is weak.”
  • On another occasion, Yahya (d. 233) said: “He is worthless.”
  • Ahmed b. Hanbal (d. 241) : “He is not strong. His hadith should be written for the sake of general acquaintance.”
  • ‘Amr b. ‘Ali (d. 249) and Al-Nasa’i (d. 303): “He is abandoned in hadith.”
  • Al-Saji (d. 307): “He has disapproved reports. He is very weak in hadith.”
  • Al-‘Uqayli (d. 322): “There are disapproved reports in his transmission. He is not corroborated in most of his hadiths.”
  • Ibn Hibban (d. 354): “He transmits reports from reliable transmitters that do not resemble those of the reliable transmitters, such that one’s heart would conclude that he purposely forged them. Thus, he deserved to be abandoned.”
  • Ibn ‘Adiyy (d. 365): “He is very weak. His weakness is apparent in his transmission.”
  • Abu Ahmed Al-Hakem (d. 378): “He is not strong according to them.”
  • Abu ‘Abdillah Al-Hakem (d. 405): “He transmitted fabricated hadiths from Muharib.”
  • Abu Nu’aym (d. 430): “He transmits disapproved reports from Muharib. He is worthless.”

Shi’ite Authorities:    (Mo’jam Rijal Al-Hadith 12/96)

  • Al-Najashi (d. 450): “An Arabian reliable transmitter.”

32. Yahya b. Hashem Al-Kufi

Sunni Authorities:    (Lisan Al-Mizan 8/480-482)

  • Yahya b. Ma’in (d. 233) accused him of fogery.
  • Ahmed b. Hanbal (d. 241): “He is not realible, and his hadith must not be written.”
  • Abu Hatem (d. 288): “He used to lie, and he was not truthful. His hadith has been abandoned.”
  • Saleh Jazarah (d. 293): “I saw Yahya b. Hisham, and he used to lie in hadith.”
  • Al-Nasa’i (d. 303) and others said: “He is abandoned (matruk).”
  • Al-‘Uqayli (d. 322): “He used to fabricate reprots and ascribe them to reliable transmitters.”
  • Ibn ‘Adiyy (d. 365): “He transmitted disapproved reports from reliable transmitters, and he used to steal reports from reliable transmitters. He is accused of not even meeting those individuals. Most of his transmission consists of disapproved reports, fabrications and stolen reports.
  • Al-Naqqash (d. 414): “He transmitted fabricated reports from Al-A’mash, Mis’ar, Dawud b. Abi Hind and others.”

Shi’ite Authorities:   (Mo’jam Rijal Al-Hadtth 21/100)

  • Al-Najashi (d. 450): “A Kufan who is scarce in his transmission. He is reliable.”

33. Ziyad b. al-Mundhir, Abu Al-Jarud

Sunni Authorities:    (Tahdib Al-Tahdhib 3/386-387)

  • Yahya b. Yahya (d.226 AH) said: “He fabricates reports.”
  • Ahmed b. Hanbal (d. 241): “He is abandoned in hadith,” and he severely weakened him.
  • Yahya b. Ma’in (d. 233): “He was a liar and an enemy of Allah who was not worth a cent.”
  • Al-Bukhari (d. 256): “They have criticized him.”
  • Abu Dawud (d. 275): “He is a liar. I heard Yahya say that.”
  • Abu Hatem Al-Razi (d. 277): “He is weak.”
  • Al-Nasa’i (d. 303): “He is abandoned (matruk).” On another occasion, he said: “He is not reliable.”
  • Ibn Hibban (died 354 AH) said: “He was a Rafidi who used to fabricate reports in the blunders of the Sahaba, and he would transmit baseless reports in the virtues of Ahlulbait. It is not permissible to write his hadith.”
  • Ibn ‘Adiyy (d. 365): “Most of his transmission is unconfirmed, and most of what he transmitted was regarding the virtues of Ahlulbait, and he is regarded among the extremists in Kufah.”
  • Ibn ‘Abdilbarr (d. 463): “They have agreed upon his weakness in hadith and that he is disapproved in it. Some have even ascribed him to the forgery of reports.”

Shi’ite Authorities:    (Mo’jam Rijal Al-Hadith 8/333-335)

  • Ibn Al-Ghada’iri (d. 5th century): “Ziyad is a man of status. His transmission among our companions is greater than his transmission among the Zaidis. Our companions dislike what Muhammad b. Sinan transmitted from him, but they approve of what Muhammad b. Bakr Al-Arjani transmitted from him.”
  • Al-Mufid (d. 413) endorsed him in Al-Risalah al- ‘Adadiyyah.
  • Al-Khoei also claimed that Ziyad was endorsed by ‘Ali b. Ibrahim Al-Qommi (d. 329); however, the authenticity of the preface to his tafsir is contested.


This article demonstrates how the Shi’ite tradition is ultimately based on transmission from liars, forgers, weak and anonymous transmitters who were eventually endorsed by later Shi’ite authorities. As demonstrated, the endorsements of Al-Tusi and Al-Najashi are worthless, which is why they both ended up endorsing various forgers, liars and weak transmitters.

This phenomenon serves to  demonstrate how the true teachings of the imams were eventually distorted and misrepresented in Twelver theology, This distortion primarily resulted from the ascription of fabrications to the imams by liars and weak transmitters who were eventually endorsed by the Shia. The transmission of such individuals forms the backbone of Twelver theology and jurisprudence today.

This phenomenon is a natural and unsurprising result of carelessness when dealing with the hadith of the Messenger of Allah, and it further demonstrates the unreliability of Twelker hadith sources. Thus, I shall conclude this paper by reminding you, O reader, of what the great tabi’i, Ibn Sirin, once said:

“Indeed, this knowledge is religion, so be careful from whom you take your religion.”

And Allah is the Witness of Abu Al-Abbas.


Al-Baghdadi, Ahmed b. ‘Ali. Tarikh Baghdad. Edited by Bashar Awwad Marouf, 1st ed., 10 16, Dar Al-Gharb Al-Islami, 2002.

Al-Jawaheri, Muhammad. Al-Mufid Min Mo’jam Rijal Al-Hadith. 2nd ed., vol. 1 1, Al-‘Ilmiyyah, 1424.

Al-Khoei, Abu Al-Qasem. Mo’jam Rijal Al-Hadith. 5th ed., Markaz Nashr Al-Thaqafah Al-Islamiyyah, 1992.

Ibn Al-Jawzi, ‘Abdurrahman. Al-Du’afaa’ wal-Matrukun. Edited by Abdullah Al-Qadhi, 1st ed., Dar Al-Kutub Al-‘Ilmiyyah, 1406.

Ibn Hajar, Ahmed. Lisan Al-Mizan. Edited by Abdulfattah Abu Ghuddah, 1st ed., Dar Al-Basha’ir Al-Islamiyyah, 2002.

___. Tahdhib Al-Tahdhib. 1st ed, Matba’at Dar Al-Nizamiyyah, 1326.


  1. This article is more deadly to the rafidah than rat poison is to rodents. An EXCELLENT strike below the belt. Keep hitting those shia hadith sciences and dont stop until you have investigated every nook and cranny of it. I have personally found that when you disconnect Shiaism, from the real historical Ahlul Bayt(just like with Christian-Muslim debates, Christians are more receptive to Islam when Paul is disassociated from Jesus), the common shia layman is much more receptive to Islam(sunnism). Also, they are completely dumbstruck and usually dont know how to respond, because it is barely covered anywhere on Shiapen or RTS. I was debating this one imbecile on facebook, and all i wanted to do was to just give him a general idea of how hadith authentication works, which is mainly through corroboration. I sent him the ‘In Defense of Hadith Methdology’ book from the islamic discourse initiative website. Basically my end goal was to show that Najashi and Tusi’s endorsement is based on absolutely nothing whereas the Sunni muhadithun were very transparent about why they declared someone as a liar or weak. This idiot Shia convert from Sunnism literally outright REFUSED to even touch the book. He literally panicked and kept making stupid excuses like ‘i have quotes from your scholars where they downgraded a shia just for being a shia’ blah blah blah. And i kept telling him that although muhadithun are subject to biases, the main method through which they authenticate content is through corroboration from other students of the same teacher. if something is not corroborated by others students, that is a huge red flag. I think deep down he knew he was in hot waters and didnt want to go there so he made up excuses. In Summary, it was an excellent article so keep at it!.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.


This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.