Dua Kumayl is NOT Authentic
In the name of Allah – the Most Gracious, Most Merciful. “Dua Kumayl” is a trademark of the Shia sect and is so popular that it is perhaps the most recited supplication known by those that ascribe themselves to the Shiasm. Ironically, upon investigation, it turned out that even this very famous supplication has questionable roots, though Shia scholars are never outspoken about this fact simply because it would be devastating to the masses.
Even some of the most outspoken reformers, like Mohammad Asif Muhsini in his Mashra’at Al-Bihar (2/405) couldn’t openly come out and reject the attribution of this supplication to Ameer Al-Mu’mineen. He said when commenting on the 118 narrations of the first chapter of the twenty third volume of Bihar Al-Anwar:
“The authentic narrations in this chapter are: 8, 9, 18, 26, 27, 29, 31, 32, 34 in a version, 35, 37, 41, 46, 54, 58, 62, 63, 65, 67, 68, 74, 75, 76, 77 in a version, 84, 86 in a version, 90, and the 91st narration which one thinks came from Ali alaihi al-salam.”
It is needless to say that Dua Kumayl is the 91st hadith in this chapter.
Muhsini, then goes on to use more doubtful language a few pages later, when explaining the narration. He explains that the body or text of Dua Kumayl “If it had actually came from him – alaihi al-salam,” would be explained in such and such manner.
These suspicious words drove us to look further into the person of Kumayl bin Ziyad, in order to find out what Shia scholars have said about him.
It turns out that the earliest Shia Rijali source that contains anything about Kumayl bin Ziyad is Rijal Al-Barqi. The author on page 59, refers to him as Kumayl bin Ziyad Al-Nakha’ee. He lists him under a chapter called: The Companions (of Ali) from Yemen. No other information is mentioned regarding this narrator. It should also be noted that there is a difference of opinion as to who is the author of this: Rijal Al-Barqi.
The second Rijali source, Rijal Al-Tusi, which is an actual authoritative book (d. 460), mentions Kumayl bin Ziyad Al-Nakha’ee twice. He is mentioned in the chapter of “those that narrated from Ali” (p. 80) and “the companions of Al-Hasan bin Ali” (p. 95).
There is no mention of Kumayl in any of the other authoritative early Shi`ee Rijali books. In other words, he has received no praise, nor condemnation. It is possible to say that Kumayl bin Ziyad was not an important figure, nor did his trademark Dua Kumayl reach canon status until at least four centuries after his death, since surely, he would have received more attention from the early Rijali scholars.
The Chain of Dua Kumayl
The earliest and most reliable source that contains the chains for Dua Kumayl is Al-Saduq’s Kamal Al-Deen 1/274-279. Al-Saduq lists the following chains to the supplication:
1- From my father, and Mohammad bin Al-Hasan, and Mohammad bin Ali Majilowaih, from Mohammad bin Abi Al-Qasim Majilowaih, from Mohammad bin Ali Al-Kufi Al-Qurashi Al-Muqri’, from Al-Nasr bin Muzahim Al-Minqari, from Omar bin Sa’ad, from Fudhail bin Khadeej, from Kumayl bin Ziyad.
2- From Mohammad bin Al-Hasan bin Ahmad bin Al-Waleed, from Mohammad bin Al-Hasan Al-Saffar, and Sa’ad bin Abdullah, and Abdullah bin Ja’afar Al-Himyari, from Ahmad bin Mohammad bin Eisa, and Ibrahim bin Hashim, from Abdulrahman bin Abi Najran, from Asim bin Humaid, from Abi Hamza Al-Thamali, from Abdulrahman bin Jundub, from Kumayl bin Ziyad Al-Nakha’ee.
3- From Abdullah bin Mohammad bin Abdullah bin Mohammad bin Abdulwahab bin Nasr bin Abdulwahab Al-Qurashi, from Abi Bakr Mohammad bin Dawud bin Sulaiman Al-Nisapuri, from Musa bin Ishaaq Al-Ansari the judge of Ray, from Abu Nu’aym Dhirar bin Surd Al-Taymi, from Asim bin Humaid Al-Hannat, from Abi Hamza, from Abdulrahman bin Jundub Al-Fazzari, from Kumayl bin Ziyad.
4- From Ahmad bin Ziyad bin Ja’afar Al-Hamadani, from Ali bin Ibrahim bin Hashim, from his father, from Abdulrahman bin Abi Najran, from Asim bin Humaid, from Abi Hamza Al-Thamali, from Abdulrahman bin Jundub Al-Fazzari, from Kumayl bin Ziyad Al-Nakha’ee.
5- From Abi Sa’eed Mohammad bin Al-Hasan bin Ali bin Mohammad bin Ahmad bin Ali bin Al-Salt Al-Qummi, from Mohammad bin Al-Abbas Al-Harawi, from Abi Abdullah Mohammad bin Ishaaq bin Sa’eed Al-Sa’di, from Abi Hatim Mohammad bin Idrees Al-Hanthali Al-Razi, from Isma’eel bin Musa Al-Fazzari, from Asim bin Humaid, from Abi Hamza Al-Thamali, from Abdulrahman bin Jundub, from Kumayl bin Ziyad Al-Nakha’ee.
6- From Abu Ahmad bin Mohammad bin Ahmad Al-Sarraj Al-Hamadani, from Abi Ahmad Al-Qasim bin Abi Salih, from Musa bin Ishaaq Al-Qadhi Al-Ansari, from Abi Nu’aym Dhirar bin Surd, from Asim bin Humaid Al-Hannat, from Abi Hamza Al-Thamali, from Abdulrahman bin Jundub Al-Fazzari, from Kumail bin Ziyad.
7- From Abi Mohammad Bakr bin Ali bin Mohammad bin Al-Fadhl Al-Hanafi Al-Shashi, from Abi Bakr Mohammad bin Abdullah bin Ibrahim Al-Bazzar Al-Shafi’ee, from Musa bin Ishaaq Al-Qadhi, from Dhirar bin Surd, from Asim bin Humaid Al-Hannat, from Abi Hamza Al-Thamali, from Abdulrahman bin Jundub Al-Fazzari, from Kumayl bin Ziyad Al-Nakha’ee.
8- From Abi Al-Hasan Ali bin Abdullah bin Ahmad Al-Aswari, from Makki bin Ahmad bin Sa’dawaih Al-Bartha’ee, from Abdullah bin Mohammad bin Al-Hasan Al-Mashriqi, from Mohammad bin Idrees Abu Hatim, from Isma’eel bin Musa Al-Fazzari, from Asim bin Humaid, from Abi Hamza Al-Thamali, from Thabit bin Abi Safiyyah, from Abdulrahman bin Jundub, from Kumayl bin Ziyad.
Note: Thabit bin Abi Safiyyah is Abu Hamza Al-Thamali.
9- From Abi Al-Hasan Ahmad bin Mohammad bin Al-Saqr Al-Sa’igh Al-Adl, from Musa bin Ishaaq Al-Qadhi, from Dhirar bin Surd, from Asim bin Humaid Al-Hannat, from Abi Hamza Al-Thamali, from Abdulrahman bin Jundub Al-Fazzari, from Kumayl bin Ziyad.
10- From Abi Mohammad Bakr bin Ali bin Mohammad bin Al-Fadhl Al-Hanafi Al-Shashi, from Abi Bakr Mohammad bin Abdullah [bin] Ibrahim Al-Bazzar Al-Shafi’ee, from Bishr bin Musa Abu Ali Al-Asadi, from Abdullah bin Al-Haytham, from Abi Ya’qoob Ishaaq bin Mohammad bin Ahmad Al-Nakha’ee, from Abdullah bin Al-Fadhl bin Abdullah bin Abi Al-Hayyaj bin Mohammad bin Abi Sufyan bin Al-Harith bin Abdulmutalib, from Hisham bin Mohammad [bin] Al-Sa’ib Abu Munthir Al-Kalbi, from Abi Mukhnaf Lut bin Yahya from Fudhail bin Khadeej, from Kumayl bin Ziyad.
11- From my father, from Sa’ad bin Abdullah, from Ya’qoub bin Yazeed, from Abdullah bin Al-Fadhl bin Eisa, from Abdullah Al-Nawfili, from Abdullah bin Abdulrahman, from Hisham Al-Kalbi, from Abi Mukhnaf Lut bin Yahya, from Abdulrahman bin Jundub, from Kumayl bin Ziyad.
12- From Mohammad bin Ali Majilowaih, from his uncle Mohammad bin Abi Al-Qassim, from Mohammad bin Ali Al-Kufi, from Nasr bin Muzahim, from Abi Mukhnaf Lut bin Yahya Al-Azdi, from Abdulrahman bin Jundub, from Kumayl bin Ziyad Al-Nakha’ee.
13- From Ja’afar bin Mohammad bin Masroor, from Al-Hussain bin Mohammad bin Amer, from his uncle Abdullah bin Amer, from Mohammad bin Abi Umair, from Aban bin Uthman Al-Ahmar, from Abdulrahman bin Jundub, from Kumayl bin Ziyad Al-Nakha’ee.
14- From Mohammad bin Musa Al-Mutawakil, from Mohammad bin Abi Abdullah Al-Kufi, from Mohammad bin Isma’eel Al-Barmaki, from Abdullah bin Ahmad, from Abi Zuhair Abdulrahman bin Musa Al-Barqi, from Mohammad bin Al-Zayyat, from Abi Salih, from Kumail bin Ziyad.
Even though these narrations of Dua Kumayl appear to be plentiful, we are ultimately looking at three hadiths only, since most of these narrations all go back to a single hadith narrator.
To break things down, it is apparent that the common link in hadiths #2 – 9 and 11 – 13 is Abdulrahman bin Jundub Al-Fazzari. He appears to be the primary narrator of Dua Kumayl, yet, he was not mentioned in any of the early books of Rijal. According to Al-Jawahiri in Al-Mufeed bin Mu’jam Rijal Al-Hadeeth, this narrator is unknown.
As for hadiths #1 and # 10, they have come through the path of Fudhail bin Khadeej. He too was not mentioned in any early books of Rijal, and is therefore an unknown narrator.
The third and final hadith is the most problematic one of the bunch, since it contains three unknown narrators, Abdulrahman bin Musa Al-Barqi, Mohammad bin Al-Zayyat, and Abu Salih.
It is important to note that the above chains of Dua Kumayl very well may include other weakness, however, we have pointed out the most obvious flaws in a concise fashion for the benefit of the readers.
In conclusion, Dua Kumayl is not reliable due to the anonymity of the paths to Kumayl and due to the anonymity of Kumayl himself.
English Translation of the Fabricated Supplication Known as Dua Kumayl
In the Name of Allah, the All-merciful, the All-compassionate
O Allah, I ask You by Your mercy, which “..embraces all things” (7:156),
And by Your strength, through which You dominate all things,
And toward which all things are humble
And before which all things are lowly;
And by Your invincibility through which You overwhelm all things,
And by Your might, which nothing can resist;
And by Your tremendousness, which has filled all things;
by Your force, which towers over all things;
And by Your face, which subsists after the annihilation of all things,
And by Your Names, which have filled the foundations of all things;
And by Your knowledge, which encompasses all things;
And by the light of Your face, through which all things are illumined!
O Light! O All-holy!
O First of those who are first
And O Last of those who are last!
O Allah, forgive me those sins which tear apart safeguards!
O Allah, forgive me those sins which draw down adversities!
O Allah, forgive me those sins which alter blessings!
O Allah forgive me those sins which hold back supplication!
O Allah forgive me those sins which cut down hopes!
O Allah, forgive me those sins which draw down tribulation!
O Allah, forgive me every sin I have committed and every mistake I have made!
O Allah, verily I seek nearness to You through remembrance of You,
And I seek intercession from You with Yourself,
And I ask You through Your munificence to bring me near to Your proximity,
And to provide me with gratitude toward You
And to inspire me with Your remembrance.
O Allah, verily I ask You with the asking of a submissive, abased and lowly man to show me forbearance, to have mercy on me
And to make me satisfied and content with Your apportionment and humble in every state.
O Allah, I ask You with the asking of one whose indigence is extreme,
And who has stated to You in difficulties his need
And whose desire for what is with You has become great.
O Allah, Your force is tremendous, Your place is lofty,
And Your deception is hidden, Your command is manifest,
And Your domination is overwhelming, Your power is unhindered
And escape from Your governance is impossible.
O Allah, I find no forgiver of my sins,
No concealer of my ugly acts,
And no transformer of any of my ugly acts into good acts but You
There is no god but You!
Glory be to You, and Yours is the praise!
I have wronged myself,
And I have been audacious in my ignorance
And I have depended upon Your ancient remembrance of me and Your favour toward me.
O Allah! O my Protector!
How many ugly things You have concealed!
How many burdensome tribulations You have abolished!
And how many stumbles You have prevented!
And how many ordeals You have repelled!
And how much beautiful praise, for which I was unworthy, You have spread abroad!
O Allah, my tribulation is tremendous,
And my bad state is excessive,
And my acts are inadequate,
And my fetters have tied me down,
And my far-fetched hopes have held me back from my gain
And this world with its delusions, my own soul with its offences and my delay have deceived me.
O my Master! So I ask You by Your might not to let my evil works and acts veil my supplication from You,
And not to disgrace me through the hidden things You know of my secrets
And not to hasten me to punishment for what I have done in private:
My evil acts in secrecy and my misdeeds
And my continuous negligence and my ignorance
And my manifold passions and my forgetfulness.
And by Your might, O Allah, be kind to me in all states
And be gracious to me in all affairs!
My God and my Lord! Have I any but You from whom to ask removal of my affliction and regard for my affairs!
My God and my Protector! You put into effect through me a decree in which I followed the caprice of my own soul
And did not remain wary of adorning my enemy.
So he deluded me through my soul’s caprice and therein destiny favoured him
So, in what was put into effect through me in that situation, I transgressed some of Your statutes
And disobeyed some of Your commands.
So Yours is the argument against me in all of that
I have no argument in what Your destiny put into effect through me therein
nor in what Your decree and Your tribulation imposed upon me.
Now I have come to You, My God, after my shortcoming and my immoderation toward myself,
Proffering my excuse, regretful,
Asking forgiveness, repenting,
Acknowledging, submissive, confessing.
I find no place to flee from what occurred through me,
Nor any place of escape to which I may turn in my affairs,
Other than Your acceptance of my excuse and Your entering me into the compass of Your mercy.
O Allah, so accept my excuse,
Have mercy upon the severity of my affliction
And release me from the tightness of my fetters,
My Lord, have mercy upon the weakness of my body, the thinness of my skin and the frailty of my bones.
O Thou who gave rise to my creation, to the remembrance of me, to the nurture of me, to goodness toward me and to nourishment on me,
Bestow upon me for the sake of Your having given rise [to me] with generosity and Your previous goodness to me!
O Allah, my Master and my Lord!
Can You see Yourself tormenting me with Your fire after I have professed Your Unity
And after the knowledge of You my heart has embraced,
And the remembrance of You my tongue has constantly mentioned
And the love of You to which my mind has clung,
And after the sincerity of my confession and my supplication, humble before Your lordship?
Far be it from You! You are more generous than that You should squander him whom You have nurtured,
Or banish him whom You have brought nigh,
Or drive away him whom You have given an abode
Or submit to tribulation him whom You have spared and shown mercy.
Would that I knew, my Master, My God and my Protector,
Whether You will give the Fire dominion over faces fallen down prostrate before Your Tremendousness,
And over tongues voicing sincerely the profession of Your Unity and giving thanks to You in praise,
And over hearts acknowledging Your Divinity through verification,
And over minds encompassing knowledge of You until they have become humble
And over bodily members speeding to the places of Your worship in obedience and beckoning for Your forgiveness in submission.
No such opinion is held of You! Nor has such been reported – thanks to Your bounty — concerning You,
O All-generous! My Lord,
And You know my weakness before a little of this world’s tribulations and punishments,
And before those ordeals which befall its inhabitants,
Even though it is a tribulation and ordeal whose stay is short, whose subsistence is but little and, whose period is but fleeting.
So how can I endure the tribulations of the next world and the great ordeals that occur within it?
For it is a tribulation whose period is long, whose station endures and whose sufferers are given no respite,
Since it only occurs as a result of Your wrath, Your vengeance and Your anger,
And these cannot be withstood by the heavens and the earth.
O Master, so what about me?!
For I am Your weak, lowly, base, wretched and miserable slave.
My God! My Lord! My Master! My Protector!
For which things would I complain to You?
And for which of them would I lament and weep?
For the pain and severity of chastisement?
Or for the length and period of tribulation?
So if You take me to the punishments with Your enemies,
And gather me with the people of Your tribulation
And separate me from Your friends and saints,
Then suppose, My God, my Master, my Protector and my Lord that I am able to endure Your chastisement,
How can I endure separation from You?
And suppose that I am able to endure the heat of Your fire,
How can I endure not gazing upon Your generosity?
Or how can I dwell in the Fire while my hope is Your pardon?
So by Your might, my Master and my protector, I swear sincerely, if You leave me with speech,
I will lament to You from the midst of the Fire’s inhabitants with lamentation of the hopeful;
I will cry to You with the cry of those crying for help;
I will weep to You with the weeping of the bereft;
And I will call to You, Where art Thou, O Sponsor of the believers,
O Goal of the hopes of Your knowers,
O Aid of those who seek assistance,
O Friend of the hearts of the sincere
And O God of all the world’s inhabitants!
Can You see Yourself — Glory be to You My God, and Yours is the praise — hearing within the Fire the voice of a slave surrendered to
Imprisoned there because of his violations,
Tasting the flavour of its torment because of his disobedience,
And confined within its levels because of his sin and crime,
While he laments to You with the lament of one hopeful for Your mercy,
And calls to You with the tongue of those who profess Your Unity
And entreats You by Your lordship!
My Protector, so how should he remain in the chastisement, while he has hope for Your previous clemency?
Or how should the Fire cause him pain while he expects Your bounty and mercy?
Or how should its flames burn him, while You hear his voice and see his place?
Or how should its groaning encompass him, while You know his weakness?
Or how should he be convulsed among its levels, while You know his sincerity?
Or how should its keepers torture him while he calls out to You, “O Lord”?
Or how should he have hope of Your bounty in freeing him from it, while You abandon him within it?
Far be it from You! That is not what is expected of You,
Nor what is well-known of Your bounty,
Nor it is similar to the goodness and kindness Thou hast shown to those who profess Your Unity.
So I declare with certainty that were it not for what You have decreed concerning the chastisement of Your deniers
And what You have foreordained concerning the everlasting home of those who stubbornly resist,
You would make the Fire, all of it, coolness and safety,
And no one would have a place of rest or abode within it.
But You —holy are Your Names—hast sworn that You will fill it with the unbelievers,
Both Jinn and men together,
And that You will place those who stubbornly resist therein forever.
And You — majestic is Your eulogy— said at the beginning and were gracious through kindness as a favour,
“What? Is he who has been believer like unto him who has been ungodly? They are not equal” (32:18)
My God and my Master! So I ask You by the power You have apportioned
And by the decision which You have determined and imposed and through which You have overcome him toward whom it has been put into
That You forgive me in this night and at this hour
Every offence I have committed,
And every sin I have performed,
And every ugly thing I have concealed
And every folly I have enacted
Whether I have hidden or announced it,
Or I have concealed it or manifested it
And every evil act which You have commanded the Noble Writers to record,
Those whom You have appointed to watch over what appears from me
And whom You have made, along with my bodily members, witness against me.
And “You were Yourself the Watcher” (5:117) over me from behind them,
And the Witness of what is hidden from them
But through Your mercy You concealed it
And through Your bounty You veiled it.
[And I ask You] that You bestow upon me an abundant share of every good You send down,
Or kindness You confer,
Or goodness You unfold,
Or provision You spread out,
Or sin You forgive,
Or error You cover.
My Lord! My Lord! My Lord!
My God! My Master! My Protector! Owner of my bondage!
O He in whose hand is my forelock!
O He who knows my affliction and my misery!
O He who is aware of my poverty and indigence!
My Lord! My Lord! My Lord!
I ask You by Your Truth and Your Holiness
And the greatest of Your Attributes and Names,
That You make my times in the night and the day inhabited by Your remembrance,
And joined to Your service
And my works acceptable to You,
So that my works and my litanies may all be a single litany
And my occupation with Your service everlasting.
My Master! O He upon whom I depend!
O He to whom I complain about my states!
My Lord! My Lord! My Lord!
Strengthen my bodily members in Your service,
And fortify my ribs in determination
And bestow upon me earnestness in my fear of You
And continuity in my being joined to Your service
So that I may move easily toward You in the battlefields of the foremost
And hurry to You among the prominent
And desire fervently Your proximity among the fervently desirous
And move nearer to You with the nearness of the sincere
And fear You with the fear of those who have certitude
And gather with the believers in Your vicinity.
O Allah, whoever desires evil for me, desire [it] for him!
whoever deceives me-deceive him!
And make me one of the most excellent of Your slaves in Portion from You,
And the nearest of them in station to You
And the most elect of them in proximity to You.
For that cannot be attained except by Your bounty.
And grant generously to me through Your munificence,
And incline toward me with Your splendour
And protect me with Your mercy!
And make my tongue remember You without ceasing
And my heart enthralled by Your love!
And be gracious to me by answering me favourably,
And nullify my slips
And forgive my lapses!
For Thou hast decreed Your worship for Your servants
And commanded them to supplicate You
And assured them that they would be answered.
So toward You, my Lord, I have turned my face
And toward You, my Lord, I have extended my hand.
So by Your might, comply with my supplication
And make me attain my desires!
Do not severe my hopes of Your favours
And spare me the evil of my enemies from among the jinn and men!
O He, whose pleasure is quickly achieved!
Forgive him who owns nothing but supplication
For You do what You will.
O He whose Name is a remedy,
And whose remembrance is a cure,
And whose obedience is wealth!
Have mercy upon him whose capital is hope
And whose weapon is tears!
O Ample in blessings!
O Repeller of adversities!
O Light of those who are lonely in the darkness!
O Knower who was never taught!
Bless Muhammad and Muhammad’s household!
And do with me what is worthy of You!
And Allah bless His messenger and the holy Imams of his household
And give them abundant peace!
The translation of Dua Kumayl was taken from here.
… and praise be to Allah – the Most Gracious, Most Merciful.