Response To Forty Hadith On Azadari

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The following is a refutation to Agha Jawad Muhaddathi’s “Forty Hadith on Azadari” that was translated into English by Shaikh Shahnawaz Mahdavi. We have quoted each of the hadiths and provided the grading for the benefit of readers. Each provided status of narrator is from Al-Mufeed min Mu’jam Rijal Al-Hadith by Al-Jawahiri (Mu’asasat Al-Tareekh Al-Islami, Beirut: First Ed. 1430 AH), a summary of Al-Khoei’s encyclopedia.

We have included the page number as a reference after the name of the weakened narrator. In summary, all the narrations provided here are weak, except for narration #36, which is authentic according to the standards of Shias today. Ironically, the narration suggests that Shias did not practice Azdari at all in the early years.

The Narrations and their Gradings

Narration 1:

The Holy Prophet (S) said: Surely, there exists in the hearts of the Mu’mineen, with respect to the martyrdom of Husayn (A.S.), a heat that never subsides – Mustadrak al‑Wasail vol 10 pg. 318

Weak: Due to the anonymity of Ibrahim bin Ishaq Al-Ahmari (p. 6).

Narration 2:

Imam Ridha’ (A.S.) said: The one for whom the day of A’ashura is a day of tragedy, grief and weeping, Allah The Mighty, The Glorious, shall make the Day of Judgment, a day of joy and happiness for him – Bihar al‑Anwar, vol. 44, pg. 284

Weak: There is no evidence for the reliability of Mohammad bin Ibrahim bin Ishaq Al-Taliqani (p. 483).

Narration 3:

Imam Ridha’ (A.S.) said: With the advent of the month of Muharram, my father Imam Kadhim (A.S.) would never be seen laughing; gloom and sadness would overcome him for (the first) ten days of the month; and when the tenth day of the month would dawn, it would be a day of tragedy, grief and weeping for him – Amaali Saduq, pg. 111

Weak: Ja’afar bin Mohammad bin Masroor is anonymous (p. 113).

Narration 4:

The Holy Prophet (S) said: O’ Fatimah! Every eye shall be weeping on the Day of Judgment except the eye which has shed tears over the tragedy of Husayn (A.S.) for surely, that eye shall be laughing and shall be given the glad tidings of the bounties and comforts of Paradise – Bihar al‑Anwar, vol. 44 pg. 193

Weak: Al-Majlisi provides no source for the narration.

Narration 5:

Imam Ridha’ (A.S.) said (to one of his companions): If you desire that for you be the reward equivalent to that of those martyred along with Husayn (A.S.), then whenever you remember him say: ‘ Oh! Would that I had been with them! A great achievement would I have achieved’ – Wasaail al‑Shia’h, vol. 14, pg. 501

Weak: Due to the anonymity of Mohammad bin Ali Majilooyah Al-Qummi (p. 559).

Narration 6:

I presented myself before Imam Sadiq (A.S.) whereupon he said to me: “Recite for me a poetry” and so I recited for him. He said “Not in this manner. Recite for me as you recite poems and elegies over the grave of Husayn (A.S.)” and so I recited for him (again) – Bihar al Anwarvol 44, pg. 287

Weak: Abu Harun Al-Makfoor is anonymous (p. 727).

Narration 7:

Imam Sadiq (A.S.) said: There is none who recites poetry about Husayn (A.S.) and weeps and makes others weep by means of it, except that Allah makes Paradise incumbent upon him and forgives his sins – Rijal al‑Shaikh al‑ Tusi pg. 189

Weak: The narration comes from the path of Mohammad bin Sinan who has been weakened (p. 535). The compiler made a mistake in the source, for the narration is in Rijal Al-Kashshi, not Al-Tusi.

Narration 8:

Imam Sadiq (A.S.) said: All praise is for Allah, who has placed amongst the people, those who arrive in our presence, eulogizing us and reciting elegies about us – Wasail al‑Shiah vol. 10, pg. 469

Weak: Due to the anonymity of Ali bin Mohammad bin Sulaiman (p. 410).

Narration 9:

Imam Ridha’ (A.S.) said: I desire that you recite for me poetry, for surely, these days (of the month of Muharram) are the days of grief and sorrow, which have passed over us, Ahlul Bayt – Mustadrak al‑Wasail,vol 10, pg. 386

Weak: Al-Nuri is quoting Al-Majlisi, but Al-Majlisi does not mention his source.

Narration 10:

Imam ‘Ali (A.S.) said: Surely, Allah has chosen for us followers (Shiites), who assist us and are happy at our happiness and are sad in our sadness – Ghuraral‑Hikam vol. 1, pg. 135.

Weak: The author of the book does not provide a source.

Narration 11:

Imam ‘Ali Ibn al‑Husayn (A.S.) used to say: Every Mu’min, whose eyes shed tears upon the killing of Husayn Ibn ‘Ali (A.S.) and his companions, such that the tears roll down his cheeks, Allah shall accommodate him in the elevated rooms of Paradise – Yanaabe’al‑Mawaddah, pg. 419.

Weak: The author of Al-Yanabee’ is quoting Tafseer Ali bin Ibrahim Al-Qummi. Some contemporary scholars, like Mohammad Asif Al-Mohseni (see his Buhuth fi Uloom Al-Rijal) and others reject the reliability of this Tafseer altogether. Perhaps due to the plethora of clear narrations within the book that the Qur’an has been tampered with.  Any Shia scholar that deems the book reliable has to ultimately accept the concept of Tahreef.

Narration 12:

Imam Sajjad (A.S.) said: Surely, I have never brought to mind the martyrdom of the children of Fatimah (A.S.) except that I have been choked with tears due to it – Bihar al‑Anwar vol. 46, pg. 109.

Weak: The narration between Mohammad bin Suhail Al-Bahrain and Ja’afar Al-Sadiq is disconnected.

Narration 13:

Imam Baqir (A.S.) mentions the manner of performing A’zadari as follows: He should mourn over Husayn (A.S.), weep for him and instruct the members of the house to weep for him. He should establish the mourning ceremony in the house by exhibiting lamentations and grief over him; the people should meet one another in their homes and offer condolences and consolation to each other over the calamities which befell him – Kaamil al‑Ziyaraat pg. 175

Weak: Since Malik Al-Juhani has not been proven to be reliable (p. 477).

Narration 14:

Amirul Mu’mineen (A.S.), along with two of his companions, happened to pass by Karbala’ and as he did so, tears filled his eyes. He said (to them), “This is the resting place of their animals; and this is where their luggage shall be laid down; and it is here that their blood shall be shed. Blessed are you O’ Earth, that the blood of the beloved shall be spilled upon you.” – Bihar al Anwar, vol: 98 pg. 258.

Weak: Ja’afar bin Mohammad bin Ubaidillah is anonymous (p. 113).

Narration 15:

Imam Baqir (A.S.) said: He who remembers us, or in whose presence, we are remembered, and (as a result) tears flow from his eyes, even though they may be in the measure of a wing of a mosquito, Allah shall construct for him a house in paradise and make the tears a barrier between him and the fire (of hell) – Al‑Ghadeer vol. 2, pg. 202.

Weak: The narration is from Kifayat Al-Athar and it includes Al-Ward bin Al-Kumait, who was not mentioned by any Rijali scholar, and is therefore anonymous.

Narration 16:

Imam Sadiq (A.S.) said: `As for A’li Ibn al‑Husayn (A.S.), he cried over Husayn (A.S.) for twenty years (after the tragedy of Karbala’); never would any food be placed before him except that he would begin to weep – Bihar al Anwar, vol 46, pg. 108

Weak: Ibn Shahrashoub narrated from Ja’afar Al-Sadiq without a chain.

Narration 17:

Imam Sadiq (A.S.) said: When Ibrahim, the son of the Holy Prophet (S) died, tears filled the eyes of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W), whereupon he said, ” The eyes are tearful and the heart is anguished (but) we shall not say anything which shall anger the Lord. Surely we, O’ Ibrahim, are grief‑stricken for you” – Bihar al‑Anwar vol: 22 , pg. : 157.

Weak: Due to the weakness of Sahl bin Ziyad (p. 273).

Narration 18:

Imam Sadiq (A.S.) said: He in whose presence we (and our miseries) are mentioned and, as a result, his eyes pour out tears, Allah shall make his face forbidden upon the fire of hell – Bihar al Anwarvol. 44, pg. 185.

Weak: Due to the anonymity of Fudhail bin Fadhalah (p. 459).

Narration 19:

Imam Sadiq (A.S.) said: Do you sit together, talk and discuss amongst yourselves? Fudhail replied: Yes. The Imam then said: I approve of these sittings. So keep our `issue’ (Imamate) alive. May Allah exhibit mercy on those who revive our issue and mission! – Wasail al‑Shiah , vol. 10, pg. 391.

Weak: The narration is taken from Al-Saduq’s Musadaqat Al-Ikhwan (p.32). Al-Saduq does not include a chain for his report.

Narration 20:

Imam Sadiq (A.S.) said (to Masma’, one of those who mourned over Imam Husayn (A.S.)): May Allah have mercy upon your tears! Do know that you are regarded as being of those who are deeply concerned about us and of those who are happy at our happiness and aggrieved at our sorrow. Do know that you shall witness the presence of my fathers near you at the time of your death – Wasail al‑Shia, vol., 10, pg. 397

Weak: Due to the anonymity of Al-Asam (p. 742).

Narration 21:

Imam Sadiq (A.S.) (while sitting on the prayer mat prayed for the mourners and those going for the ziarat of the Ahlul Bayt (A.S.) as follows): O’ Lord, have mercy upon those eyes, which have shed tears in compassion for us; and upon those hearts, which have been restless and blistered for us; and upon those wailings, which have been for us – Bihar al‑Anwar vol 98 , pg. 8.

Weak: Al-Majlisi is quoting Kamil Al-Ziyarat but quotes the wrong chain. The correct chain from hadith #336 in Kamil Al-Ziyarat comes from the path of Hassaan Al-Basri, who according to Al-Khoei is Ghassan Al-Basri, the anonymous narrator. See pages 131 and 451.

Narration 22:

Imam Sadiq (A.S.) said: He whose eyes shed tears for our blood which has been shed, or for our rights which have been usurped, or for the humiliation meted out to us or to one of our Shiites, Allah shall accommodate him in paradise for a long time – Amali Sheikh al Mufid, pg. 175.

Weak: Due to the anonymity of Mohammad bin Abi Amara Al-Kufi (p. 487).

Narration 23:

Imam Sadiq (A.S.) said: O’ Zurarah! The sky had cried for forty days over (the martyrdom of) Husayn (A.S.) – Mustadrakal‑Wasail, vol 1 pg. 391

Weak: There is a narrator in this report referred to as Ali bin Mohammad bin Salim. However, Al-Khoei rejects this as a scribe’s mistake, and that this is Ali bin Mohammad bin Sulaiman who is also anonymous (p. 410).

Narration 24:

Imam Sadiq (A.S.) said: After the news of the martyrdom of Ja’far Ibn Abi Talib (A.S.) and Zaid Ibn Harithah reached the Holy Prophet (S), whenever he entered his house, he would weep profusely for them and say: ” They used to converse with me and were intimate with me and (now) both of them have departed together” – Man La Yahdhuruhu al‑Faqih, vol. 1, pg. 177

Weak: Al-Saduq did not include a chain for this narration.

Narration 25:

Imam Sadiq (A.S.) said: The breath of one who is aggrieved upon the injustice and oppression subjected to us, is tasbeeh (glorification of Allah), and his grief for us, is i’baadat (worship of Allah) and his concealing our secrets, is jihad in the path of Allah. The Imam (A.S.) then added: This tradition ought to be written in gold – Amaali al‑Shaikh al‑Mufid, pg. 338.

Weak: Due to the anonymity of Eisa bin Abi Mansour (p 445) and Mohammad bin Sa’eed bin Ghazwan (p. 531).

Narration 26:

Imam Sadiq (A.S.) said: Allah has appointed to the grave of Imam Husayn (A.S.), four thousand anguished and grief‑stricken angels, who weep over him (and shall continue to do so) up to the Day of Judgment – Kamil al‑Ziyaraat, pg. 119.

Weak: Due the anonymity of Al-Qassim bin Mohammad Al-Jawhari (p. 465).

Narration 27:

O’ Son of Shabib! If you have to cry over something, then do so over Husayn Ibn ‘Ali (A.S.) for surely, he was slaughtered in the manner in which a ram is slaughtered – Bihar al Anwar, vol. 94, pg. 286.

Weak: Due to the anonymity of Mohammad bin Ali Majilooyah Al-Qummi (p. 559).

Narration 28:

Imam Ridha’ (A.S.) said (to Rayyan Ibn Shabib): He who sits in a gathering in which our affairs (and our path and aims) are discussed and revived, his heart shall not die on the day (Day of Judgment) when hearts shall die (of fear) – Bihar alAnwar vol 4 pg. 178.

Weak: There is no evidence for the reliability of Mohammad bin Ibrahim bin Ishaq Al-Taliqani (p. 483).

Narration 29:

Imam Ridha’ (A.S.) said: Those who weep should weep over the likes of Husayn (A.S.) for surely, weeping over him does away with one’s great sins – Bihar al‑Anwar vol: 94, pg. 184.

Weak: Ja’afar bin Mohammad bin Masroor is anonymous (p. 113).

Narration 30:

Imam Ridha’ (A.S.) said: O’ Son of Shabib! Should you weep for Husayn (A.S.) in the measure that tears roll down your cheeks, Allah would forgive all the sins committed by you, whether they be the great sins or the small sins and whether they be meagre or immense – Amali Saduq, pg. 111.

Weak: Due to the anonymity of Mohammad bin Ali Majilooyah Al-Qummi (p. 559).

Narration 31:

Imam Ridha’ (A.S.) said: O’ Son of Shabib! If it makes you happy (and you desire) to be with us in the elevated ranks of paradise, then be sad in our grief and happy at our happiness – Wasaail al‑Shiah, vol. 14 pg. 502.

Weak: Due to the anonymity of Mohammad bin Ali Majilooyah Al-Qummi (p. 559).

Narration 32:

Imam Ridha’ (A.S.) said: One who refrains from seeking his (worldly) desires on the day of A’ashura, Allah shall grant him his desires of this world and the hereafter – Wasaail al Shiah, 14, pg. 504.

Weak: There is no evidence for the reliability of Mohammad bin Ibrahim bin Ishaq Al-Taliqani (p. 483). The narration is also narrated by Mohammad bin Bakr bin Al-Naqqash, though, none of the authors of Rijali books have mentioned him. It is possible that he is Mohammad bin Bakr bin Ali bin Mohammad bin Al-Mufadhal Al-Hanafi, since he is the teacher of Al-Saduq, but he would also be anonymous according to Al-Mufeed min Mu’jam Rijal Al-Hadith (p. 505).

Narration 33:

The zaair (pilgrim) of Imam Husayn (A.S.) turns back (from his pilgrimage) such that not a single sin remains upon him – Wasaail al‑Shia’h, vol 14, pg. 412.

Weak: Due to the anonymity of Al-Asam (p. 742).

Narration 34:

Imam Sadiq (A.S.) said: One who weeps for Imam Husayn (A.S.), surely, the Imam (A.S.) observes him and seeks forgiveness for him and requests his holy fathers to (also) seek forgiveness for him – Bihar al‑Anwar vol. 44, pg. 181

Weak: Due to the anonymity of Al-Asam (p. 742).

Narration 35:

The Holy Prophet (S) (said to H. Fatimah (A.S.)): On the Day of Judgment, you shall intercede for the ladies and I shall intercede for the men; every person who has wept over the tragedy of Husayn (A.S.), we shall take him by the hand and lead him into Paradise – Bihar al‑Anwar vol. 94 pg. 192

Weak: Al-Majlisi does not provide a source for the report.

Narration 36:

A’bdullah Ibn Sinaan says: I arrived in the presence of my master, Imam Sadiq (A.S.) on the day of A’ashura and found him pale and grief‑stricken, with tears streaming from his eyes like falling pearls – Mustadrak al‑ Wasail,vol 6, pg, 279.

The chain includes Ibrahim bin Hashim Al-Qummi, who was not declared as reliable or weak by any early scholar even though most contemporary Shias do consider him to be reliable. See Al-Hilli’s Khulasat Al-Aqwal (p. 49). Other than him, the chain is from Mazar Al-Mashhadi and it consists of the most reliable Shia narrators.

The narration itself is a contradiction to Azdari since Abdullah bin Sinan, the narrator of the report, who is one of the most reliable and famous companions of Al-Sadiq implies that he did not know the significance of this day. He said: “O’ son of the Messenger of Allah, what makes you cry? May Allah not let you cry.” Al-Sadiq replied, “Are you lost?! Don’t you know that this is the day that Al-Hussain bin Ali was killed?!”

This narration suggests that the companions of the Imams never cried for Al-Hussain and that this action was not a common practice. Ja’afar Al-Sadiq became an Imam around sixty years after the death of Al-Hussain, which means that for fifty years, the closest companions of the Imams were not taught to cry for Al-Hussain.

Narration 37:

The Holy Prophet (S) said: (On the Day of Judgment, a group would be seen in the most excellent and honourable of states. They would be asked if they were of the Angels or of the Prophets. In reply they would state): “We are‑neither Angels nor Prophets but of the indigent ones from the ummah of Muhammad (S)”. They would then be asked: “How then did you achieve this lofty and honourable status?” They would reply: “We did not perform very many good deeds nor did we pass all the days in a state of fasting or all the nights in a state of worship but yes, we used to offer our (daily) prayers (regularly) and whenever we used to hear the mention of Muhammad (S), tears would roll down our cheeks” – Mustadrak al‑Wasail,vol 10, pg. 318.

Weak: The source Al-Nuri quotes does not include a chain to Anas bin Malik, who is also rejected by Shias.

Narration 38:

Imam Sadiq (A.S.) said: He (Imam Husayn) sees those, who come to his shrine and he knows them by their names, their father’s names and their ranks in the eyes of Allah, The Mighty, The Glorious, better than you know your own children! – Wasaail al Shiah vol 14, pg. 411.

Weak: Due to the anonymity of Al-Asam (p. 742).

Narration 39:

Imam A’li (A.S.) said to Ibn A’bbas: (Once when he happened to pass by Karbala’), Isa (A.S.) sat down and began to weep. His disciples who were observing him, followed suit and began weeping too, but not comprehending the reason for this behaviour, they asked him: “O’ Spirit of God! What is it that makes you weep?” Isa (A.S.) said: “Do you know what land this is?” The disciples replied: “No.” He then said: “This is the land on, which the son of the Prophet Ahmad (S) shall be killed – Bihar al Anwar vol 44 pg. 252.

Weak: Due to the anonymity of Tameem bin Bahlool (p. 94).

Narration 40:

Abu Baseer narrates that Imam Baqir (A.S.) said: The humans, the jinn, the birds and the wild beasts (all) mourned and wept over (the tragedy which befell) Husayn Ibn A’li (A.S.) – Kaamil al‑Ziyaaraat, pg. 79.

Weak: Due the anonymity of Yahya bin Mu’ammar Al-Attar (p. 667).

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