The Shia keep claiming that `Ali (ra) was being oppressed and silenced during the time of the first three Khulafa’, of course this claim is completely wrong as it contradicts many narrations in both Sunni and Shia books, we will present one of more interesting ones for the benefit inshaAllah:
عبد الرزاق ، عن معمر ، عن مطر الوراق ، وغيره ، عن الحسن قال : أرسل عمر بن الخطاب إلى امرأة مغيبة كان يدخل عليها ، فأنكر ذلك ، فأرسل إليها ، فقيل لها : أجيبي عمر ، فقالت : يا ويلها ما لها ، ولعمر قال : فبينا هي في الطريق فزعت فضربها الطلق فدخلت دارا ، فألقت ولدها ، فصاح الصبي صيحتين ، ثم مات ، فاستشار عمر أصحاب النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فأشار عليه بعضهم ، أن ليس عليك شيء ، إنما أنت وال ومؤدب قال : وصمت علي فأقبل عليه ، فقال : ما تقول ؟ قال : إن كانوا قالوا : برأيهم فقد أخطأ رأيهم ، وإن كانوا قالوا : في هواك فلم ينصحوا لك ، أرى أن ديته عليك فإنك أنت أفزعتها ، وألقت ولدها في سببك قال : فأمر عليا أن يقسم عقله على قريش ، يعني يأخذ عقله من قريش لأنه خطأ
[`Abdul-Razzaq, from Ma`mar, from Matar al-Warraq, and others, from al-Hasan, that he said: `Umar sent after a promiscuous woman who used to receive men, he did not accept this. So when they got to her place, they called on her: “Come answer to `Umar!” She said: “Woe to me! What have I done to `Umar!?” And while on her way, she was painful, and entered a house and dropped her child, so he cried twice then died.
`Umar consulted the companions of the Prophet (SAWS), and some of them said to him: “You are not deserving of punishment, your duty is only to discipline them as the ruler.” but `Ali was silent, so `Umar approached him and asked: “What is your opinion?” `Ali replied: “If this is their opinion then they erred, and if they said this to you knowing that you wanted to hear it, then they did not give you sound advice. I see that you must pay the blood money(Diyyah) for him, because you scared her and she dropped her child as a result.” so he ordered `Ali to distribute the money between Quraysh because he was wrong.]
Source: Musannaf Abdul-Razzaq.
وفيما أجاز لي أبو عبد الله الحافظ روايته عنه ؛ أن أبا الوليد الفقيه أخبرهم قال : ثنا الماسرجسي أبو العباس ، ثنا شيبان ، ثنا سلام ، قال : سمعت الحسن يقول : إن عمر – رضي الله عنه – بلغه أن امرأة بغية يدخل عليها الرجال ، فبعث إليها رسولا ، فأتاها الرسول ، فقال : أجيبي أمير المؤمنين . ففزعت فزعة ، فوقعت الفزعة في رحمها ، فتحرك ولدها ، فخرجت ، فأخذها المخاض ، فألقت غلاما جنينا ، فأتي عمر بذلك ، فأرسل إلى المهاجرين فقص عليهم أمرها ، فقال : ما ترون ؟ فقالوا : ما نرى عليك شيئا يا أمير المؤمنين ، إنما أنت معلم ومؤدب ، وفي القوم علي ، وعلي ساكت ، قال : فما تقول أنت يا أبا الحسن ، قال : أقول إن كانوا قاربوك في الهوى فقد أثموا ، وإن كان هذا جهد رأيهم فقد أخطئوا ، وأرى عليك الدية يا أمير المؤمنين . قال : صدقت ، اذهب فاقسمها على قومك
[From what al-Hafiz abu `Abdullah granted me the Ijazah to narrate, is that abu al-Walid al-Faqih told them, he said: al-Masirjisiy abu al-`Abbas told us, Shayban told us, Sallam told us, he said: I heard al-Hasan say: That it had reached `Umar that a promiscuous woman was receiving men, so he sent her a messenger, and the messenger said to her: “Come answer to Ameer al-Mu’mineen!” So she got scared and it affected her womb, and her child moved, and when she left she suddenly dropped her fetus.
`Umar was informed of this he sent after the emigrants and told them her story, he asked: “What do you think?” they said: “We see no fault on you O Ameer al-Mu’mineen, your job is only to discipline and teach.” and `Ali was among the folks and he was silent. `Umar said: “O abu al-Hasan, what do you think?” `Ali replied: “I say: if they spoke only what you desired to hear, then they are sinful, and if they had thought and reached this opinion, then they are wrong. O Ameer al-Mu’mineen, I see that you must pay the blood money(Diyyah).” `Umar said: “You speak truth! Go and divide it among your folks.”]
Source: Sunan al-Bayhaqi al-Kubra.
From this one narration, the one with intellect can conclude many things, such as:
1-`Umar bin al-Khattab (ra) took responsibility for his own mistakes.
2-`Umar bin al-Khattab (ra) did not care about his own image and prestige, he would admit his mistake in public.
3-`Umar bin al-Khattab (ra) took the decision which is against his own interest and well-being simply because he saw it was the truth.
4-`Umar bin al-Khattab (ra) consulted and was no dictator.
5-`Umar bin al-Khattab (ra) greatly respected the opinion of `Ali bin abi Talib (ra) and often consulted him and agreed with him.
6-`Umar bin al-Khattab (ra) would trust `Ali bin abi Talib (ra) with official tasks, such as receiving the money and dividing it equitably among the people.
7-`Ali bin abi Talib (ra) was not oppressed during the rule of `Umar bin al-Khattab (ra) nor was he prevented from stating his opinions.
8-`Ali bin abi Talib (ra) acknowledges the legitimacy of the Khilafah of `Umar bin al-Khattab (ra) by addressing him as “Ameer al-Mu’mineen”.
9-`Ali bin abi Talib (ra) was not afraid of speaking the truth during the Khilafah of `Umar bin al-Khattab (ra) in his presence.